Evaluation of the Impact of Five Bio-insecticides of Plant Origin and a Chemical Insecticide on the Survival of Imagos of the Parasitoid Aphidius colemani under Laboratory Conditions

Main Article Content

Fahad Kaoutar
Brhadda Najiba
Ziri Rabea
Benssallem El Hassane
Gmira Najib

Abstract

Aims: The present study aims to evaluate the control pests without the harms of chemical pesticides as well as ensure the safety of bio-insecticides of plant origin vis a vis females of the parasitoid Aphidius colemani, important auxiliary in biological control.

Study Design: Experimental device was in a complete random block with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Bio-insecticidal Entomology and Laboratory of weed science of Regional Center of Agricultural Research, Kenitra, INRA-Morocco and Laboratory of Nutrition, Health and Environment. Biodiversity and agro resources team Ibn Tofail University, Faculty of Sciences Kenitra Morocco. The experiment was conducted between the fall of 2018 (from September to December 2018) and the winter of 2019 (January-February 2019).

Methodology: To meet the objective of this work, four endemic plants were collected from the Gharb region of Morocco; these are the leaves of Nerium oleander that are available all year, the roots of Mandragora autumnalis, the fruits of Capsicum frutescens, and those of Melia azedarach these organs are well developed with complete maturity during the fall and winter. The fruits of Melia azedarach have been separated into seeds and pulps. Five concentrations of each aqueous extract were prepared (2; 5; 10; 15 and 20 g / 20 ml). In addition to control without any treatment (blanc) and a chemical insecticide (deltamethrin). All concentrations were administered by contact to females of Aphidius colemani.

Results: Comparing the bio-insecticides tested, the aqueous extract of the seed of Melia azedarach showed an insecticidal action that was the fastest and the most toxic. Thus, following exposure of 20 g/20 ml, the observation after 4 hours showed a minimum mortality rate of 3% and a maximum mortality rate of 50%, 96 hours after. This extract was followed by the aqueous extract of the leaves of Nerium oleander that showed a maximum mortality rate of 43%. However, their harmfulness remains much lower than that of deltamethrin. In addition, the aqueous extract of the roots of Mandragora autumnalis has proved to be safe for females of Aphidius colemani. On the other hand, the aqueous extract of the fruits of Capsicum frutescens and that of the pulp of Melia azedarach are moderately toxic.

Conclusion: By way of conclusion, the aqueous extract of the roots of Mandragora autumnalis could be used as an insecticide in parallel with the release of the parasitoid Aphidius colemani, in a biological control.

Keywords:
Bio-insecticides, Aphidius colemani, plant extracts, Mandragora autumnalis, Capsicum frutescens, Nerium oleander, biological control.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kaoutar, F., Najiba, B., Rabea, Z., El Hassane, B., & Najib, G. (2019). Evaluation of the Impact of Five Bio-insecticides of Plant Origin and a Chemical Insecticide on the Survival of Imagos of the Parasitoid Aphidius colemani under Laboratory Conditions. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 41(6), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630428
Section
Original Research Article

References

MAPMDREF. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Maritime Fisheries, Rural Development and Water and Forests. Growing areas in growth and diversified production. Report. 2017;1.

Moroccan Agricultural Credit. Investor's guide to organic farming. 2019;9.

Harbouz R. Rapport de synthèse sur l’agriculture au Maroc. Projet d’Appui à l’Initiative ENPARD Méditerranée. 2019;104.

Anonyme. Loi n°39-12 relative à la production biologique des produits agricoles et aquatiques, promulguée par le dahir n°1-12-66 du 4 rabii I 1434 (16 janvier 2013); 2013.

AMABIO. Association marocaine de la filière des productions biologiques. Bulletin. 2018;2.

Haut-Commissariat au Plan. Le marché du travail au Maroc: Défis et opportunités; 2017.

Abbott W. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol(ed). 1824;18:265-267.

Atawodi SE, Atawodi JC. Azadirachta indica (neem): A plant of multiple biological and pharmacological activities. Phytochemistry Reviews. 2009;8(3):601-620.

Rebek EJ, Sadof CS. Effects of pesticide applications on the Euonymus Scale (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitoid, Encarsia citrine (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 2003; 96(2):446-452.

Bouchelta A. Bioécologie de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) et recherche de méthodes alternatives de protection de la tomate contre Bemisia tabaci en culture protégée: utilisation des substances allélochimiques. Thèse Doctorat ès-science en Biologie. Université Moulay Ismail Faculté des Sciences Meknès. Maroc. 2005;180.

André Bélanger, Thaddée Musabyimana. Le Neem contre les insectes et les maladies. Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada, Centre de recherche et développement en horticulture, 430 Boul. Gouin, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec J3B 3E6. 4P; 2005.

Benjamine Lisan. Protection des cultures contre les parasites et les ravageurs sans phytosanitaire de synthèse par des moyens écologiques: Lutte biologique et psychique moyens mécaniques, méthodes culturales. Create Space Indépendant Plat Forme Editions. 2016;200.

Perquet A, Boisset M, Casse F, Catteau M, Lecerf JM, Leguille C, Laville J, Barnat S. Pesticides, risques et sécurité alimentaire, aprifel Fruits et légumes France. 2010;216.

Desneux N. The sublethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology. 2007; 52(1):81-106.

Anses. Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire alimentation, environnement, travail. Recherche d'insecticides potentiellement utilisables en lutte anti-vectorielle. Rapport d'expertise Collective, édition Scientifique. 2011;158.