Climate Hazards and the Changing World of Coffee Pests and Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa

Main Article Content

B. A. Ogundeji
M. A. Olalekan-Adeniran
O. A. Orimogunje
S. O. Awoyemi
B. A. Yekini
G. A. Adewoye
I. A. Bankole

Abstract

Coffee has over the years remained of great importance to the global economy. Although the crop originated from Africa, its production is presently dominated by Brazil and Vietnam, which now respectively account for 34 and 13% of global production. Ethiopia and Uganda which are at the fore-front of production within sub-Saharan Africa account for 62% of the region’s coffee output. Out of the many species of coffee that exist, C. arabica (Arabica coffee) and C. canephora (Robusta coffee) are of outstanding economic importance. While the former does well on high altitudes (1000-2000 m above sea level), average temperature ranges of between 15 and 24°C, and 2000 mm rainfall per annum, the latter, which can thrive under hotter, drier conditions can be grown on altitudes of about 800 m above sea level.  Generally speaking, optimal coffee-growing conditions include cool to warm tropical climates, rich soils, and few pests or diseases. Each of the grown species however does well under specific environmental conditions. The constantly increasing environmental temperatures, coupled with accompanying variations in weather conditions, have some direct debilitating effects on coffee production and quality. Pests and pathogens, being able to tolerate a wide range of temperature, have the capabilities to proliferate and negatively influence the crop’s yield, quality and production cost. In view of the the highlighted problems, some mitigation strategies have been developed by researchers to limit the extent of damage caused by global warming on coffee production in the region. Chief among these include genetic improvement/development of resistant cultivars, reforestation (planting under shade), high-density planting/irrigation, integrated pest management, improved access to climate information and reduction of green house gas emissions. These, among others would enhance the quantity and quality of coffee produced and consequently boost the region’s economy.

Keywords:
Coffee, Sub-Saharan Africa, pests, diseases, climate, mitigation.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ogundeji, B. A., Olalekan-Adeniran, M. A., Orimogunje, O. A., Awoyemi, S. O., Yekini, B. A., Adewoye, G. A., & Bankole, I. A. (2019). Climate Hazards and the Changing World of Coffee Pests and Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 41(6), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2019/v41i630429
Section
Review Article

References

Coffee Research Institute (CRI). Coffee Plant: Arabica and Robusta. Coffee Research Institute; 2018.

International Coffee Organization (ICO). The story of coffee. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011; 2011.

Iscaro J. The impact of climate change on coffee production in Colombia and Ethiopia. Global Majority E-Journal. 2014; 5(1):33-43.

Davis AP, Gole TW, Baena S, Moat J. The impact of climate change on indigenous arabica coffee (Coffea arabica): Predicting future trends and identifying priorities. PLoS One. 2012;7(11): e47981.

Damatta FM, Ramalho JDC. Impacts of drought and temperature stress on cofeee physiology and production: A review. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 2006;18:55-81.

Vieira HD. Coffee: The plant and its cultivation. In: Plant-parasitic nematodes of coffee, souza, m. (ed.). Springer, Dordrecht. 2008;3-18.
[ISBN-13: 9781402087202]

Waller JM, Bigger M, Hillocks RJ. Coffee pests, diseases and their management. CABI, Norfolk. 2007;434.
[ISBN-13: 9781845932091]

Anthony FC, Combes C, Astorga B, Bertrand, GG and Lashermes P. The origin of cultivated Coffea arabica L. varieties revealed by AFLP and SSR markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 2002;104:894-900.

Labouisse JP, Bellachew B, Kotecha S, Bertrand B. Current status of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genresources in Ethiopia: Implications for conservation. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 2008;55:1079-1093.

Vega FE. The rise of coffee. Am. Sci., 2008;96:138-145.

World Economic Forum WEF. Which African countries produce the most coffee?
Available:https://www.weforum.org/

International Coffee Council (ICC). Climate change and coffee103rd Session. London, England; 2009.

Damatta FM, Ramalho JDC. Impacts of drought and temperature stress on cofeee physiology and production: A review. Braz. J. Plant Physiol. 2006;18:55-81.

FAOSTAT. Coffee; 2010.
Available: www.fao.org/faostat

Mutua J. Postharvest handling and processing of coffee in African countries; 2000.
Available:www.fao.org/3/X6939E/X6939e00htm

United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Adaptation policy frameworks for climate change, In: Climate change adaptation in coffee production: A step-by-step guide to supporting coffee farmers in adapting to climate change. The Initiative for Coffee & Climate; 2005.
Available:www.coffeeandclimate.org

Killeen JT, Harper G. Coffee in the 21st century: Will climate change and increased demand lead to new deforestation? 2016.

Masters G, Baker P, Flood J. Climate change and agricultural commodities. CABI Position Paper; 2009.

Hoffmann J. The world atlas of coffee: From beans to brewing, coffees explored, explained and enjoyed, Firefly Books; 2014.

Groenen D. The effects of climate change on the pests and diseases of coffee crops in Meso-America. Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting; 2018.
Available:https://www.longdom.org/open-access/the-effects-of-climate-change-on-the-pests-and-diseases-of-coffee-crops-in-mesoamerica-2342-2594-1000239.pdf

Plant Village. Coffee; 2019.
Available:https://plantvillage.psu.edu/topics/coffee/infos

Hameed A, Hussain SA, Suleria HAR. Coffee bean-related, agroecological factors affecting the coffee. In: Merillon, JM, Ramawat K. (eds): Co-evolution of secondary metabolites. Reference Series in Phytochemistry. Springer; 2018.
Available:https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry

Ghini R, Bettiol W, Hamada E. Diseases in tropical and plantation crops as affected by climate changes: Current knowledge and perspectives. Plant Pathol. 2011;60:122–132.

Elad Y, Pertot I. Climate change impacts on plant pathogens and plant diseases, Journal of Crop Improvement. 2014;28: 99–139.

Agrios GN. Plant Pathology. 5th ed. London, UK: Elsevier Academic Press; 2005.

Michon S. Climate and coffee; 2015.
Available:https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-and/climate-coffee

FAO. Climate change and transboundary pests and diseases; 2019.
Available:www.fao.org/foodclimate

Abraham A, Ebisa D. Climate smart coffee (Coffea arabica) production. American Journal of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. 2017;2(2):62- 68.

Duke ES, Cornell MH. How climate change is killing coffee. Social Impact; 2019.
Available:http://www.coffeeresearch.org/agriculture/coffeeplant.htm

Kollipara P. Climate Change Could Slash Coffee Production; 2014.

Davis AP, Gole TW, Baena S, Moat J. The impact of climate change on indigenous Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica): Predicting future trends and identifying priorities. PLoS ONE; 2012.

Enomoto R. Climate-friendly and productive farming guide for coffee smallholders in Africa); 2011.

Dekens J, Mak FB. Promoting an Integrated Approach to Climate Adaptation: Lessons from the coffee value chain in Uganda; 2012.

Läderach P, Haggar J, Lau C, Eitzinger A, Ovalle O, Baca M, Jarvis A, Lundy M. Mesoamerican coffee: Building a climate change adaptation strategy. CIAT Policy Brief no. 2.Centro International de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia; 2010.

Schroth G, Laderach P, Dempewolf J, Philpott S, Haggar J, Eakin H, Castillejos T, Moreno JG, Pinto LS, Hernandez R, Eitzinger A. Towards a climate change adaptation strategy for coffee communities and ecosystems in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 2009;14(7):605-625.

Ovalle-Rivera O, Läderach P, Bunn C, Obersteiner M, Schroth G. Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change. Plos One. 2015;10(4):e0124155.

Haggar J, Schepp K. Coffee and climate change: Impacts and options for adaption in Brazil, Guatemala, Tanzania and Vietnam, NRI working paper series: Climate Change, Agriculture and Natural Resources; 2012.

Charlebois S. How the coffee industry is about to get roasted by climate change, The Conversation CA. October 10, 2017 1.15am SAST Updated July 31, 2018 9.17pm SAST.

Climate Care. The effect of climate change on coffee production; 2019.
Availabel:https://climatecare.org/the-effect-of-climate-change-on-coffee-production/

Camargo MBPD. The impact of climatic variability and climate change on arabic coffee crop in Brazil. Bragantia. 2010; 69(1):239-247.

Potts J. Building a sustainable coffee sector using market-based approaches: The Role of Multi-stakeholder Cooperation; 2003.

Bongase ED. Impacts of climate change on global coffee production industry: Review. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;12(19):1607-1611.

Haggar J, Schepp K. Coffee and climate change. Desk study: impacts of climate change in four pilot countries of the coffee and climate initiative. Hamburg: Coffee and Climate; 2011.

Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). IPCC fourth assessment report. climate change Working group II: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; 2007.
Available:www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/annexessglossary-p-z.html

Craparo ACW, Van Asten PJA, Läderach P, Jassogne LTP, Grab SW. Coffea arabica yields decline in Tanzania due to climate change: Global implications. Agric. For. Meteorol. 2015;207:1-10.

Jassogne L, Läderach P, Asten VP. The impact of climate change on coffee in Uganda: Lessons from a case study in the Rwenzori Mountains. Oxfam Policy and Practice: Climate Change and Resilience. 2013;9(1):51-66.

Schroth G, Laderach P, Dempewolf J, Philpott S, Haggar J, Eakin H, Castillejos T, Moreno JG, Pinto LS, Hernandez R, Eitzinger A.. Towards a climate change adaptation strategy for coffee communities and ecosystems in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Mexico. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 2009; 14(7):605-625.

Nzeyimana I, Hartemink AE, Graaff J. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda, Outlook on Agriculture. 2013; 42(1):47–52.

International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). Meso-American coffee: Building a climate change adaptation strategy, Läderach P, Haggar J, Lau C, Eitzinger A, Ovalle O, Baca M, Jarvis A, Lundy M (Ed.) Cali, Colombia; 2013.

Ramirez-Villegas J, Salazar M, Jarvis A. and Navarro-Racines CE. A way forward on adaptation to climate change in Colombian agriculture: Perspectives towards 2050. Climate Change. 2013;115: 611–628.

Jaramillo J, Chabi-Olaye A, Kamonjo C, Jaramillo A, Vega FE, Poehling, HM and Borgemeister C. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest. PLoS ONE. 2009;4: 1–11.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Climate change adaptation and mitigation-challenges and opportunities in the food sector; 2012.
Available:www.fao.org/