Main Article Content
Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the meat colour, physicochemical properties and microbial load of broiler meat fed Vernonia amygdalina extracts and meal.
Study Design: The experiment employed a complete randomized design; all data generated were subjected to analysis of variance, P=0.05.
Place and Duration of Study: The feeding trial of the study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria while meat quality attributes were evaluated at Animal Products and Processing Laboratory, Department of Animal Science of the same institution between June and September, 2016.
Methodology: Twelve 8 weeks old broiler chickens with an average weight of 2.5±0.2 kg used in this study were obtained from an experimental unit where they were assigned to four treatments. Treatment 1 and treatment 2 were offered Vernonia amygdalina aqueous extract and ethanolic extract in drinking water respectively and leaf meal was added to the feed of treatment 3 in powdered form. Treatment 4 was offered water and feed without Vernonia amygdalina leaf meal or extracts. Meat produced from the carcass was refrigerated before being analyzed.
Results: The result revealed that supplementation of VA extract for T1 and T2 gave better meat physicochemical parameter compared to control. However, pH ranged from 5.51-5.87 and cooking loss (29.84 -37.19) were not significantly (P>0.05) different among the treatments. T2 (ethanolic extract) had the highest extract release volume. T1 (aqueous extract) had the highest meat swelling capacity (227.62) and water holding capacity (70.33). T3 (leaf meal) showed a significantly (P<0.05) lower lightness (L*) and yellowness b* while T1 (Aqueous extract) had higher redness (a*). Total viable count (TVC) of treatment 2 was significantly lower compared to others.
Conclusion: The result of these findings showed that the use of the ethanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina in water was able to inhibit microbial load and improve physicochemical properties of fresh meat compared to aqueous extract and VA leaf meal.
Cuppelt SL, Hall CA. Antioxidant activities of labiatae adv. Food Nutrition Research. 1998;22:245-251.
Nakatani N. Phenolic antioxidant from herbs and species. BioFactors. 2000;13: 141-146.
Ekpo A, Eseyin OA, Ikpeme AO, Edoho JE. Studies on some biochemical effects of Vernonia amygdalina in rats. Asian Journal of Biochemistry. 2007;2:193-197.
Akwaowo EU, Ndon BA, Etuk. Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin (Telfaria accidentalis Hook f.). Food Chemistry. 2000;70:235-240.
Christaki E, Florou-Paneri P, Giannenas I, Papazahariadou M, Botsoglou NA, Spais AB. Effect of a mixture of herbal extracts on broiler chickens infected with Eimeria tenella. Anim. Res. 2004;53:137–144.
Youn HJ, Noh JW. Screening of the anticoccidial effects of herb extracts against Eimeria tenella. Vet. Parasitol. 2001;96:257–263.
Gbolade AA. Inventory of antidiabetic plants in selected districts of Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009;121:135-139.
Bonsi MLK, Osuji PO, Tuah AK, Umunna NN. Vernonia amygdalina as a supplement to teff straw (Eragrostis tef) fed to Menz sheep. Agroforestry Systems. 1995;31: 229-241.
Jay JM. Beef microbial quality determined by extract release volume (ERV). Food Technology. 1994;18:1637-1641.
Wierbicky E, Kunkle LE, Deatherage FE. Determination of meat swelling as the method of investigating water binding capacity of muscle protein with low water holding force. Fleischwirtschaft. 1963;15: 404.
Zayas FJ, Lin CS. Quality characteristics of frankfurters containing corn germ protein. Journal of Food Science. 1988;53:1587–1591.
Mahendrakar NS, Dam NP. Studies on the effect fattening on carcass characteristics and quality of meat from from Bannur lambs. Journal of Food Science Technology. 1988;25:225-231.
APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 18th Ed., Part 2540D. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC; 1992.
SAS. Statistical analysis systems proprietary software release. SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC; 2011.
Swatland HJ. How pH causes paleness or darkness in chicken breast meat. Meat Science. 2008;80:396-400.
Santosh KHT, Uttam KP, Prabhat KM, Chakradhar. Das changes in the quality of dressed chicken obtained from different sources during frozen storage. Exploratory Animal and Medical Research. 2014;4:95-100.
Shults GW, Wierbicki E. Effects of sodium chloride and condensed phosphates on the water holding capacity, pH and swelling of chicken muscle. Journal of Food Science. 1973;38:991.
Almeida ICL, Mendes AA, Oliveira EG, Garcia RG, Garcia EA. Efeito de dois níveis delisina e do sexo sobre o rendimento e qualidade da carne de peito de frangos de corte. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 2002;31:1744-1752. Portuguese
Forrest JC, Aberle ED, Hedrick HB, Judge MD, Merkel RA. Principles of meat science (3rd Ed.). Iowa: Kendall/ Hunt Publishing Company; 1994.
Allen CD, Russell SM, Fletcher DL. The relationship of broiler breast meat color and pH to shelf-life and odor development. Poultry Science. 2002;76: 1042-1046.
Zapata JFF, Andrade AA, Barreto SCS, Abreu VKG, Fuentes MFF, Freitas ER, Garruti DS. Avaliação preliminar do armazenamento em congelamento sobre a qualidade da carne de peito de frangos de dois tipos genéticos. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology. 2006;9:185-191. Portuguese
Hocking AD. Mould and yeast associated with foods of reduced water activity: Ecological interactions. In: Seow CC, Editor. Food Preservation by Moisture Control. Elsevier Applied Science, London. 1988;57-72.
Torres EA, Shimokomaki M, Franco BDGM, Landgrafa M, Carvalho BC, Santos JC. Parameters determining the quality of charqui, an intermediate moisture meat products. Meat Science. 1994;38:229- 234.
Selim NA, Sh A, Nada AF. Abdel-Salam, Youssef SF. Evaluation of some natural antioxidant sources in broiler diets: 2-effect on chemical and microbiological quality of chilled and frozen broiler meat. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2013;12(10):572-581.