Phytosociology, Diversity and Ecological Groups of the Adult Tree Component of a Forest Remnant in Pernambuco – Brazil

Main Article Content

Raquel Elvira Cola
Anne Carolyne Silva Vieira
Lucas Galdino da Silva
Sthéfany Carolina de Melo Nobre
Maurício Leodino de Barros
Mayara Dalla Lana
Regis Villanova Longhi
Carlos Frederico Lins e Silva Brandão

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to characterize the floristic richness, phytosociological structure, and classify the ecological groups of the adult tree component species in an area of ecological tension (Seasonal Forest and Caatinga) in Pernambuco - Brazil. The study was conducted in Atlantic Forest stretch in Pernambuco – Brazil, from April 2019 to February 2020. Methods adopted for this study includes the allocation of 20 plots, with dimensions of 10 m x 25 m, spaced in 25 m. Each adult individual, with a circumference at breast height (CBH 1.30 m) ≥ 15 cm, was identified in the field. The softwares Mata Nativa version 2 and Excel 2019 were used to process the collected data. Sample sufficiency, classification of ecological groups, diversity and phytosociology were analyzed. As a result of the research, the density of the adult tree component in the fragment was 1,888 indha-1 and the dominance was 21.64 m².ha-1. These values are following the standards of other studies in Atlantic Forest in the State of Pernambuco. The botanical families with greatest richness are, respectively, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Annonaceae, Lauraceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae. Regarding the ecological groups, 46% of the species were classified as initial secondary. The species of greatest Value of Importance were Guapira nitida, Buchenavia tetraphylla, Manilkara sp., Byrsonima crassifolia and Sloanea obtusifolia, respectively. The Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H') value was 3.21 nats.ind-1 and the Pielou Uniformity Index (J) was 0.73. According to the results obtained, the development process of the adult tree component of the fragment was directly affected by the pasture matrix. However, species diversity has not been compromised, indicating the area's resilience potential.

Keywords:
Horizontal structure, successional classification, ecological tension, Brazilian Northeast

Article Details

How to Cite
Cola, R. E., Vieira, A. C. S., Silva, L. G. da, Nobre, S. C. de M., Barros, M. L. de, Lana, M. D., Longhi, R. V., & Brandão, C. F. L. e S. (2020). Phytosociology, Diversity and Ecological Groups of the Adult Tree Component of a Forest Remnant in Pernambuco – Brazil. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 42(3), 88-106. https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2020/v42i330487
Section
Original Research Article

References

Mittermeier RA, Gil PR, Hoffmann M, Pilgrim J, Brooks T, Mittermeier CG, et al. Hotspots Revisited. 1st ed. Cemex; 2004.

Meunier IMJ, Ferreira RLC, Silva JAA. Does the licensing of Caatinga Forest Management Plans ensure its sustainability?. Brazilian Journal of Forestry Research. 2018;38(17);1-7. Portuguese.

Lima FVS. Ecological Succession after the Charcoal Manufacture in the Pedra Branca Massif, Brazil. University of Lisboa. Portuguese. 2019;101.

Mikich SB, Liebsch D. Assessment of food supplementation and surveillance as techniques to reduce damage caused by black capuchin monkeys Sapajus nigritus to forest plantations. Current Zoology. 2014;60(5);581–590.

Joly CA, Metzger JP, Tabarelli M. Experiences from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: ecological findings and conservation initiatives. New Phytologist. 2014;204:459-473.

Moreira B, Carvalho FA. The arboreal community of an urban fragment of the Atlantic Forest after 40 years of secondary succession (Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais). Biotemas. 2013;26(2);59-70.
DOI:10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p59

Chazdon RL. Second growth: The promise of tropical forest regeneration in an age of deforestation. 1st ed. Oficina de Textos; Portuguese; 2016.
[ISBN: 978-85-7975-217-9]

Santos JHS, Ferreira RLC, Silva JAA, Souza AL, Santos ES, Meunier IMJ. Distinction of ecological groups of forest species using multivariate techniques. Brazilian Journal of Forest Science. Portuguese. 2004;28(3):387-396.

Oliveira EKB, Rezende AV, Freitas LJM, Murta Júnior LS, Barros QS, Costa LS. Monitoring of structure and ecological characterization in managed tropical forest in the Brazilian Amazon. Brazilian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;14(4): e6867.
DOI: 10.5039/agraria.v14i4a6867

Floriano EP. Forest phytosociology. 1st ed. São Gabriel: Author’s edition; 2014. Portuguese.

Giehl ELH, Budke JC. Scientific method application in phytosociological studies in Brazil: in search of a paradigm. In: Felfili JM, Eisenlohr PV, Melo MMRF, Andrade LA, Neto JAAM. Phytosociology in Brazil: methods and case studies. Viçosa: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil; 2011.

Chaves ADCG, Santos RMS, Santos JO, Fernandes AA, Maracajá PB. The importance of floristic and phytosociological surveys for the conservation and preservation of forests. Agropecuária Científica no Semiárido. Portuguese. 2013;9(2);42-48.

13.Araújo LHB, Vieira FA, Santana JAS, Nóbrega CC, Borges CHA. Spatial distribution and diametric structure of tree species in a Dense Ombrophilous Forest in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;28(2):1-10.
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42105

Marchiori NM, Rocha HR, Tamashiro JY, Aidar MPM. Tree community composition and aboveground biomass in a secondary Atlantic Forest, Serra do Mar State Park, São Paulo, Brazil. Cerne. 2016;22(4):501-514.
DOI: 10.1590/01047760201622042242

Fantini AC, Schuch C, Siminski A, Siddique I. Small-scale management of secondary forests in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Floresta e Ambiente. 2019;26(4): e20170690.

Leite MJH, Lima TM, Marcelino ISN, Pinto AVF, Longhi RV, Oliveira GFS, et al. Richness and diversity of species forestry of Atlantic forest fragments in the state of Pernambuco. Brazilian Journal of Development. 2019;5(11);22784-22790.
(Acessed on 07 April 2020)
Available:http://brjd.com.br/index.php/BRJD/article/view/4272/4028

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). 2018.

(Acessed on 22 Nov 2019)
Available:https://cidades.ibge.gov.br/brasil/pe/garanhuns/panorama

Alvares CA, Stape JL, Sentelhas PC, Moraes Gonçalves JL, Sparovek G. Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 2013; 22(6):711-728.

Guimarães IP, Silva Filho AF, Gomes HA, Osako LS, Brasil EA, Lima DR, et al. Garanhuns Sheet SC.24-X-B-VI. Pernambuco: CPRM; 2008.

Gonçalves LMS, Orlandi RP. Vegetation. In: Radam Brasil Project, papers SC 24/25 Aracajú/Recife. 1983;30;577-643.

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Map of the area of application of Law n° 11,428 of 2006; 2008.
(Acessed on 7 Jan 2020)
Available:http://ww.ibge.gov.br/home/geociencias/default_prod_shtm

Martin L, Cavarro R. Technical manual of the Brazilian Vegetation. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE; 2012.

Marques EQ, Marimon-Junior BH, Marimon BS, Matricardi EAT, Mews HA, Colli GR. Redefining the Cerrado–Amazonia transition: implications for conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2019;29;1501-1517.

Silva RKS, Feliciano ALP, Marangon LC, Lima RBA, Freire FJ. Phytosociology of the arboreal component in an area of spring, Pernambuco. Ciencia e Natura. 2019;41: 01-08.
DOI: 10.5902/2179460X29505.

Lima RBA, Freire FJ, Marangon LC, Feliciano ALP, Silva RKS, Freire MBGS, Freire CS. Nutritional efficiency of plants as an indicator of forest species for the restoration of forests, Brazil. Scientia Forestalis. 2018;46(119);415-426.
DOI:dx.doi.org/10.18671/scifor.v46n119.09

Silva RKS, Feliciano ALP, Marangon LC, Lima RBA, Santos WB. Structure and dispersion syndromes of tree species in a stretch of riparian forest, Sirinhaém, Pernambuco, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Forestry Research. 2012;32(69);1- 11.
DOI: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.01

APG IV. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 2016;181:1-20.

Lorenzi H. Brazilian trees: A guide to the cultivation and identification of Brazilian Trees. Nova Odessa - SP: Plantarum Institute; 1992;1998.

Carnaúba AF, Ralph LN, Leão SLM, Morais YYGA, Feliciano ALP. Natural and Ecological Succession in na Urban Fragmento f the Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco, Brazil. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2019;30(1):1-10.
DOI: 0.9734/JEAI/2019/v39i130326

Brandão CFLS, Junior FTA, Lana MD, Marangon LC, Feliciano ALP. Spatial distribution, succession and dispersion of the arboreal componente in Atlantic Forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco. Green Journal of Agroecology and Sustainable Development. 2011;6(2);218-229.

Budowski G. Distribution of tropical American forest species in a light of successional processes. Turrialba. 1965; 15(1):40-42.

Gandolfi S, Leitão Filho HF, Bezerra CLE. Floristic survey and successional character of shrub-tree species from a semideciduous mesophilic forest in the city of Guarulhos, SP. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 1995;55(4);753-767.

Consulting and Systems Development (CIENTEC). Software Mata Nativa 2: System for Phytosociological Analysis, Elaboration of Inventories and Management Plans of Native Forests. Viçosa: Cientec; 2006.

Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1974.

Lima HC, Queiroz LP, Morim MP, Souza VC, Dutra VF, Bortoluzzi RLC. et al. Fabaceae. In: List of species of the Brazilian Flora. Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro; 2013.
(Acessed on 18 Dec 2019)
Available:http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB115

The Brazil Flora Group (BFG). Growing knowledge: An overview of seed plant diversity in Brazil. Rodriguésia. 2015;66 (4);1085-1113.
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860201566411

Azani N, Babineau M, Bailey CD, Banks H, Barbosa AR, Pinto RB, et al. A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny. Taxon. 2017; 66(1):44-77.

Barros LC. Taxonomic study of species of the genus Dicymbe Spruce Ex Benth. (Fabaceae; Detarioideae) occurring in the Brazilian Amazon. Federal University of Pará. Portuguese. 2017;39.

Sobral M, Proença C, Souza M, Mazine F, Lucas E. Myrtaceae. In: List of Species of the Brazilian Flora. Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro; 2015.
(Acessed 11 Dec 2019)
Available:http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/ FB171

Tabarelli M, Mantovani W, Peres CA. Effects of habitat fragmentation on plant guild structure in the montane Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil. Biological Conservation. 1999;91;119-127.

Sobral M, Proença CEB. Siphoneugena delicata (Myrtaceae): A new species from the Montane Atlantic Forests of Southeastern Brazil. Novon. 2006;16; 530 532.

Krinski D, Massaroli A, Machado M. Insecticidal potential of plants of the Annonaceae family. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura. 2014;36:225-242.
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452014000500027

Silva CA, Neta AMD. Reproductive aspects and floral visitors of Duguetia marcgraviana Mart. (Annonaceae) in the southwest region of Mato Grosso. Biotemas. 2010;23(1):69-76.

Quinet A, Baitello JB, Moraes PLR, Assis L, Alves FM. Lauraceae. In: List of Species of the Brazilian Flora. Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro; 2012.
(Acessed on 10 Jan 2020)
Available:http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/FB030199. Portuguese.

Gentry A. Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 1989;75(1):1-34.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Red List of Threatened Species; 2009.
(Acessed on 8 Jan 2020)
Available: www.iucnredlist.org

Somner GV, Ferrucci MS. Sapindaceae. In: Wanderlay MGL, Shepherd GJ, Martins SE, Estrada TEMD, Romanini RP, Koch I, et al. Phanerogamic Flora of the State of São Paulo. São Paulo: Rima. 2009;6;195-255.

Somner GV, Ferrucci MS, Acevedo-Rodríguez P. Serjania. In: List of species of the Brazilian Flora. Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro. 2013.
(Acessed on 11 Dec 2019)
Available:http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB32743

Judd WS, Christopher S, Campbell EA, Kellogg PF, Stevens MJ. Plant systematics: A phylogenetic approach. 2nd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates Inc; 2002.
[ISBN: 0–87893–403–0]

Carneiro CE, Almeida Jr EB, Alves-Araujo A. Sapotaceae. In: List of species of the Brazilian flora. Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro; 2014.
(Acessed on 10 Jan 2020)
Available:http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/FB000217

Alves-Araújo A, Alves M. Flora of Usina São José, Igarassu, Pernambuco: Sapotaceae. Rodriguésia. 2010;61(2);303-318.

Sobrinho LF. Ecological processes in forest restoration areas in the Zona da Mata Sul of Pernambuco. Federal Rural University of Pernambuco. 2019;98.

Santos WB. Structure of the arboreal component of the edge and interior of the ombrophilous forest fragment, Mata do Camurim, em São Lourenço da Mata - PE, Brasil. Federal Rural University of Pernambuco. 2014;90.

Nascimento LM, Rodal MJN. Physiognomy and structure of a seasonal mountain forest in the Borborema Massif, Pernambuco – Brasil. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2008;31;27-39.

Costa Junior RF, Ferreira RLC, Rodal MJN, Feliciano ALP, Marangon LC, Silva WC. Arboreal floristics of an Atlantic Forest fragment in Catende, Pernambuco – Northeast Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2007;2(4);297-302.

National Flora Conservation Center (CNCFLORA). Guapira nitida (Mart. ex J. A. Schmidt) Lundell; 2012.
(Acessed on 10 Jan 2020)
Available:http://cncflora.jbrj.gov.br/portal/pt-br/profile/Guapira%20nitida

Sá CFC, Stehmann JR, Forzza RC, Salino A, et al. Nyctaginaceae. In: List of species of the Brazilian flora. Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro; 2009.

Rodal MJN, Lucena MFA, Andrade KVSA, Melo AL. Mata do Toró: a semi-deciduous lowland seasonal forest in Northeastern Brazil. Hoehnea. 2005;32;283-294.

Furlan A, Giulietti AM. The Pisoniea emeisner (Nyctaginaceae) tribe in Brazil. Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo. 2014;32;145-268.

DOI:10 .11606/issn.2316-9052.v32i2p145-268

Weaver PL. Buchenavia capitata (Vahl.) Eichler: Granadillo. SO-ITF-SM-43, Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans; 1991.
Acessed 10 Jan 2020
Available:https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/30373

Almeida Jr EB, Silva ANF, Zickel CS. New occurrence of Manilkara Adans. (Sapotaceae) for the coast of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. Revista Trópica: Ciências Agrárias e Biológicas. 2018;10 (1):38-43.

Pennington TD. Sapotaceae. In: Flora Neotropica. The New York Botanical Garden, New York; 1990.

Almeida Jr EB, Zickel CS. Occurrence note of Manilkara rufula (Miq.) H.j. Lam (Sapotaceae) for the State of Rio Grande do Norte. Pesquisas, Botânica. São Leopoldo: Anchietan Research Institute; 2011;62;381-385.

Lorenzi H. Brazilian trees: A guide to the cultivation and identification of Brazilian Trees. Nova Odessa - SP: Plantarum Institute; 1998.

Araújo RR, Santos ED, Farias DBS, Lemos EEP, Alves RE. Byrsonima crassifolia and B. verbascifolia: Murici. In: Coradin L, Camillo J, Pareyn FGC. Native Species of Brazilian Flora of Current of Potential Economic Value: Plants for the Future: Northeast Region. Brasília: MMA; 2018.
(Acessed 10 Jan 2020)
Available:https://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/1104683.Portuguese

National Flora Conservation Center (CNCFLORA). Sloanea obtusifolia (Moric) Schum. In: Red List of Brazilian Flora; 2012.
(Acessed 10 Jan 2020)
Available:http://cncflora.jbrj.gov.br/portal/pt-br/profile/Sloanea obtusifolia

Simonelli M, Fraga CN. Flora species threatened with extinction in the State of Espírito Santo. Vitória, ES: IPEMA; 2007.

Felfili JM, Rezende RP. Phytosociology concepts and methods. Brasília: University of Brasilia, Forestry Department; 2003.

Cola RE, Nobre SCM, Farias DS, Silva LG, Pinto AVF, Brandão CFLS. Phytosociology and dispersion syndrome in a stretch of Atlantic Forest, in Paulista – PE. Agropecuária Científica no Semiárido. 2019;15(3);213-218.
DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.30969/acsa.v15i3.1181

Silva Júnior JF, Marangon LC, Ferreira RLC, Feliciano ALP, Brandão CFLS, Alves Júnior FT. Phytosociology of the tree component in an Atlantic Forest remnant in the municipality of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE. Brazilian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;3(3);276-282.

Rocha KD, Chaves LFC, Marangon LC, Lins e Silva ACB. Characterization of the adult tree vegetation in an Atlantic Forest fragment, Igarassu, ¬¬PE. Brazilian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;3(1);35-41.
DOI: 10.5039/agraria.v3i1a219

Brower JE, Zar JH. Biotic sampling methods. In: Brower JE, Zar JH. Field and laboratory methods for general ecology. Iowa: Wm. C. Brown. 1977;65-105.

Holanda AC, Feliciano ALP, Marangon LC, Santos MS, Melo CLSMS, Pessoa MML. Structure of tree species under edge effect in a Seasonal Semideciduous Forest fragment in Pernambuco. Brazilian Journal of Forest Science. 2010;34(1);103-114.
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-67622010000100012