Farmers’ Knowledge and Perception on CommonBeans Production Constraints and their Mitigation Methods in the Humid Rainforest and Highland Savanna of Cameroon

Main Article Content

Henry A. Andukwa
Nelson N. Ntonifor

Abstract

Background: Common beans, Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most important plant protein sources in many African countries including Cameroon. It is a major source to smallholder farmers and some large-scale farmers. Common beans also fixes atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with rhizobia thus improving soil fertility. Despite the importance of this major food and cash crop, its production in Cameroon is constrained by several abiotic and biotic factors. Therefore it was hypothesized that bean farmers in the study regions have knowledge on; (1) the various factors that hamper bean production; (2) the planting periods/seasons that the various constraints are more important; (3) they have their own indigenous methods of mitigating these constraints but would prefer more appropriate methods if available.

Aims: To document when farmers plant beans,how they handled the crop when matured, and if they faced problems with rot/mould, insects orany other constraints in their beans and how they manage these problems.

Study Design: Random interviewing of beans farmers.

Place and Duration of Study: Interviewed farmers in Buea and Dschang of the humid rainforest and highland agro-ecological zones of Cameroonrespectively from January 2017 to December 2017.

Methodology: A semi-structural questionnaire was administered to 519 randomly selected bean farmers in two agro-ecological zones; the humid rainforest and highland savanna. A total of 163 from Bueain the south west (humid rainforest) and 356 from Dschang in the west (highland savanna) were randomly interviewed to document the farmers’ perceptions on various constraints hampering beansproduction, when these are most limiting and the various methods they use to mitigate them.

Results: Farmers in both agro-ecological zones lacked adequate land surface area for bean production and suffered from low yields. In the highland savanna or west region, 166 (45.98%) and 119 (75.32%) in the humid rainforest or south west region grew beans in farms of sizes <1Ha. Only 2 (1.27%) of bean farmers in the South West and 35 (9.69%) in the West produced beans on farms >2Ha. Most farmers in the west 267 (73.96%) and 139 (87.97%) in the south west produced only 1-3 bags of 50kg each of beans/ha.The farmers faced problems with mold/rot and insect pests; the mold/rot was the most nagging for beans that matured during the rainy season while insect pests was the major constraint for the dry season beans. The mold/rot was controlled mainly by the adjustment of the planting dates of beans while different types of insecticides were used against the insect pests. Farmers also face problems in having adequate/appropriate staking materials for the climbing or indeterminate bean varieties.

Conclusion: Considering that farmers face the actual daily challenges of bean production. Their knowledge and perceptions of the production constraints of this crop are quintessential and should count in defining research priorities aimed at mitigating the problems in order to increase beans production. Therefore, there is need for research to test and/or validate these farmers knowledge and perceptions about bean production constraints as a prelude to vulgarizing the effective control/management options.

Keywords:
Insect pests, mould/Rot, phaseolus vulgaris, seasonal differences, production constraints

Article Details

How to Cite
Andukwa, H. A., & Ntonifor, N. N. (2021). Farmers’ Knowledge and Perception on CommonBeans Production Constraints and their Mitigation Methods in the Humid Rainforest and Highland Savanna of Cameroon. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 43(2), 70-85. https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i230648
Section
Original Research Article

References

Maingi JM, Shisanya CA, Gitonga NM, Hornetz B. Nitrogen fixation by common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pure and mixed stands in semi-arid south-east Kenya Eur. J. Agron. 2001;14(1)1-12.

Beebe S, Gonzalez AV, Rengifo J. Research on trace minerals in the common bean. Food Nutr. Bull. 2000;21:387-391.

Woodward I, Skrbis Z, Clive B. Altitudes towards globalization and cosmopolitanism: Cultural diversity, personal consumption and national economy. British Journal of Sociology. 2008;59(2):207-226.

Comité National des Co-produitsCNC report 2004. Coproduits de fruits etlégumes et coproduits de conserverie: Fiche n° 24. Comité National des Co-produits, ADEME, IDELE; 2004.

Bedoussac EP, Journet H, Hauggaard-Nielsen C, Naudin G, Corre-Hellou ES, Jensen L, Prieur E. Justes ecological principles underlying the increase of productivity achieved by cereal-grain legume intercrops in organic farming. A review Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2015;35:911-93.

Latati A, Bargaz B, Belarbi M, Lazali S, Benlahrech S, Tellah G, Kaci JJ, Drevon SM. OunaneThe intercropping common bean with maize improves the rhizobial efficiency, resource use and grain yield under low phosphorus availability Eur. J. Agron. 2016;72:80-90.

Daba S, Haile M. Effects of rhizobial inoculants and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and nodulation of common bean under intercropped conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2002;25:1443–1455.
DOI: 10.1081/PLN-120005401.

Silveira P,M, Braz AJBP, Kliemann HJ, Zimmermann FJP. Nitrogen fertilization of common bean grown under no-tillage system after several cover crops.PesquisaAgropecuáriaBrasileira. 2005;40:377–381.

Buruchara R, ChirwaR, Sperling L, Mukankusi C, Rubyogo JC, Muthoni R, Abang MM. Development and delivery of bean varieties in Africa: The pan- Africa bean research alliance (PABRA) Model. African Crop Science Journal. 2011;19(4):22 7–245.

Lunze L,Kimani PM, Ndakidemi PA, Rabary B, Rachier GO, Ugen MM, L. Nabahunguselection of bean lines tolerant to low soil fertility conditions in AfricaAnnu. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. 2002;45:182-183.

Lunze L, Abang MM, Buruchara R, Ugen MA, Nabahungu NL, Rachier GO.Ngongo M, RaoJ I. Whalen (Ed.), integrated soil fertility management in bean-based cropping systems of Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, soil fertility improvement and integrated nutrient management - A Global Perspective; 2012.

Ed., ISBN: 978-953-307-945-5, InTech.

Griller KE. Nitrogen fixation in tropical cropping systems. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.2001.

Anonymous. Annuaire des Statistiques du Secteur Agricole du Cameroun: Campagnes 2007-2008;2010.
Available:www.minader.cm/.../documents -de-statistiques-de-la-direction des-études-et- statistiques-agricoles.

Broughton WJ, Hemndez G, Blair M, Beebe S, Gepts P, Vanderleyden J. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) – model food legumes. Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences.2003;252:55–128.

FAOSTAT. FAO statistics online database, “Production/crops – ‘beans, dry’, year 2014”, Food and Agriculture Organization;2014.
Available:http://faostat3.fao.org /home/E

(Accessed February 2016).

Harelimana A, Le Goff G, Rukazambuga DT, Hance T. Coffee production systems: Evaluation of intercropping system in coffee plantations in Rwanda. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(9).

Thuy PT, Lebailly P. Economic viability of intercropped farms in Dak Lak province, Central Highlands, Vietnam. InX International Scientific Agriculture Symposium" AGROSYM 2019": Book of abstracts. University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture. 2019;865).

Msuku WAB, SakaVW, Munthali DC. Major diseases and insect pests of beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) in Malawi; 2000.

Messiaen CM, Seif AA. Phaseolus vulgaris L. (French bean). In: Grubben, G.H.J. &Denton, O.A. (Editors). Plant Resources of TropicalAfrica 2.Vegetables.PROTA Foundation, Wageningen, Netherlands / Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands / CTA, Wageningen, Netherlands. 2004;415–419.

Graham PH Vance CP. Legumes: Importance and constraints to greater use. Plant Physiology. 2003;131(3):872-877.

Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.017004

Singh SP, Schwartz HF. Breeding common bean for resistance to diseases: A review. Crop Sci. 50: 2199 2223Crossref,Google Scholar; 2010.

Altieri A.M.Agroecology, small farms and food sovereignty. Monthly review. 2009;61:102-13.

Utono IM, Gibson G, Coote C. A survey of systems of grainstorage and management of insect pests in stored grain in Kebbi state. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2013;3(5):51-61.

Coulibaly O, Mbila D, Sonwa DJ, Adesina A, Bakala J.Responding to economic crisis in sub-saharan Africa: New farmers-developed pest management strategies in cocoa-based plantations in southern Cameroon. Integrated pest management Review. 2002;7:165-172.

Abate T. Control of other pests and diseases in dryland farming in Africa, ed JRJ Rowland. London: Macmillan.1993;9:188-204.

Gtorni P, Battilani P, Magan N. Effect of solute and matric potential on in-vitro growth and sporulation of strains from anew population of Aspergillus flavus in Italy. Fungal Ecol.2009;1:101-106.

Coyne D, Hoeshle-zeledon I. Handbook of major pests and disease of important crops in Malawi. Deatsche Gesellschaft Fur Technizche Z a sammenarbeit and Malawi, ministry of Agricultur and food security Lilongwe,Malawi. 2001;17:735-742.

Marasa WFO. Discovery and occurance of fumonisim: A historical perspective. Environmental Health perspective.2001;109:239-243.

Ngoko Z, Marases WFO, Rheeder JP, Sherphard GS, Wingfield MJ, cardwell KF. Fungi infection and mycotoxin contamination of maize in the Humid Forest and Western Highlands of Cameroon. Phytopararitica.2001;29(4);352-360.

Chattha SH, Lee TS. Storage methods and problems of wheat grain at Sondh, Pakistan. Internariona Jurnal of Bioscience.2014;5(7):260-274.

Hell K, Utegi C, Fadohan P. Aflatoxin control and Prevention Strategies in maize for sub-saharan Africa. 10th International working conference on stored product protection.2010;253-541.

Damte T, Dawid M. Chickpea, lentil and grass pea insect pest research in Ethiopia : A review in food and forage legumes of Ethiopia; progress and prospects, preceding of a workshop on food and forage legumes. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 September 2003; Alik Kenenl, G. Ahmed S. Malhotra, R. Beniwal S, Malckouk K, Halila MH 1 eds) ICARDA: Alepposyria. 2006;260-273.

Chimoya IA, Abdullahi G. Species compositions and relative abundance of insect pest associated with some stored crereals grains in selected markets of Maidngari metropohtan. Journal of American Science. 2011;7(4):355-358.

Tamgmo BR, Ngamo TSL. Diversity of stored grain insect pests in the Logone Vallay, from Northern Cameroon to Western Chad Republic in Central Africa. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2013;3:724-731.

Miller JD.Fungi and mycotoxin in grains: Imlicaton for stored products research. Journal of Stored Products Research. 1995;31:1-16.

Milton RF, Pawsey RK. Spoilage relating to the storage and transport of cereals and oil seeds. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 1988;7:214-217.

Sauer D, B.Effects of fungal deterioration on grain. Nutritional value,toxicity and germination. International formal of food microbiology.1988;7:267-275.

Ntonifor NN. Potential of tropical African spices as source of reduced-risk pesticides. Journal of Entomology.2011;8(1):16-26.

Oben EB, Ntonifor NN, Kekeunou S, Addeytakor MN. Farmer’sknowledge and perception on maize stemborers and their indigenous control methods in south western regions of Cameroon Journal of Ethnabiology and Ethnomedicine. 2015;11:77-90.

Kaaya AN, Kyamuhangire W, Kyamanywa S. Factors affecting aflatoxin contamination of harvested maize in the three agroecological zones of Uganda. Journal of Applied Science. 2006;6:2401-2407.

Abate T, Van Huis, ampofo JKO. Pest management in traditional agriculture on African Perspective Annual review of Entomology. 2000;45:631-659.