Journal of Experimental Agriculture International 2021-05-15T11:39:37+00:00 Journal of Experimental Agriculture International Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Experimental Agriculture International (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-0591)</strong>&nbsp;is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of agriculture and biology. The journal publishes original scientific papers, short communications, review articles and case studies. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Effect of Legumes on Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Wheat in a Short Term Crop Rotation in Njoro Sub-County 2021-05-15T06:32:05+00:00 P. A. Ooro R. J. Birech J. N. Malinga E. Thuranira <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study determined the effect of legumes in short term crop rotation (cereal – legumes cropping systems) on nitrogen use efficiency of wheat.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used in a split-split-plot arrangement replicated three times. Three factors evaluated included water harvesting (WH), crop rotation (CR) and soil fertility management (SFM). The data obtained were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Genstat statistical package while the mean separation was performed using least significance differences (<em>P</em> =.05).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The trial was conducted at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) fields based in Njoro for three years between 2014 and 2016 during rainy seasons.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The treatments consisted of four pre-crops in the rotation systems (CR1 = Dolichos lablab (<em>L. purpureus)</em> as a pre-crop; CR2 = Green pea (<em>Pisum sativum)</em> as a pre-crop; potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em>) as a pre-crop; and CR4 = continuous wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em>), two water harvesting (WH) strategies (WH = flat beds; and WH= tied ridges) and&nbsp; six soil fertility management (SFM) strategies (SFM1 = untreated control; SFM2 = FYM at 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>;&nbsp; SFM3 = Green manure (<em>Leucaena trichandra</em>) at 2.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup>; SFM4 =&nbsp; inorganic source at 25 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>; SFM5 = inorganic source at&nbsp; 50 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>; and SFM6 = Inorganic source at 75 kg N ha<sup>-1)</sup>..</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed that the value of NUE significantly (p &lt; 0.001) increased when <em>P. sativum</em> and <em>L. purpureus</em> preceded wheat in the short term crop rotation system.&nbsp; The value of NUE increased by 39% and 44%, when wheat was preceded<em> L. purpureus</em> and <em>P. sativum,</em> respectively, relative to <em>S. tuberosum</em>.&nbsp; Under continuous wheat, NUE value was increased by 54.17% relative to potato as a pre-crop. Overall, the contribution of legumes (<em>L. purpureus and P. sativum</em>) as precursor crops was greater than those observed with potato and wheat as pre-crops.</p> 2021-05-07T10:22:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Growth, Yield and Shattering Dynamics of Seeds of Twelve Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Accessions 2021-05-15T06:32:05+00:00 P. K. Tandoh B. K. Banful I. A. Idun E. A. Gaveh <p>Roselle (<em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> L.) is an important crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates with huge nutritional, economic and industrial benefits. The plant undergoes explosive shattering to disperse seeds after physiological maturity leading to high loss of seeds at the time of harvesting. A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different harvesting stages on the growth, yield and shattering dynamics of seeds of twelve Roselle accessions in the Department of Horticulture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi from March to November, 2019. A 3x12 factorial design in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used for the study, where factor one was harvesting stages at three levels (physiological maturity, one week after physiological maturity and two weeks after physiological maturity) and factor two was accessions at twelve levels. The study revealed that accession HS08 performed best in terms of growth (plant height, the number of leaves, number of branches and stem girth) and reproductive parameters (number of days to flowering) and accessions HS27 and HS08 produced the highest yield (number of pods, number of seeds per pod, and total seed yield). Harvesting of seeds at the physiological maturity stage happened to be the ideal time because seeds were harvested safely without any losses (0%) due to shattering as compared to the other harvesting stages. The study also established a very strong, positive and significant relationship between seed yield and number of leaves (r=0.7093) and the number of branches (r=0.9241). However, there was a strong but negative and significant relationship between seed yield and percentage seed shattering loss (r=-0.9633). There was a very strong, positive and significant relationship between number of leaves and stem girth (r=0.7769). The number of seeds per plant correlated positively with the number of pods (r=0.7358). A regression model which was given by the equation; Y (Seed yield)=670.96-0.3152 (Shattering loss), R<sup>2</sup>=0.9279, p&lt;0.0000, indicated that shattering loss significantly affected seed yield to an extent that it contributed 93% of the variation in the seed yield.</p> 2021-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutritional and Biochemical Quality Assessment of Commonly Consumed Jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) Varieties Available in Bangladesh 2021-05-15T06:32:02+00:00 Nishita Rani Paul Supti Mallick H. M. Zakir A. Rahman Q. F. Quadir <p>A study was conducted to determine major biochemical and mineral constituents in commonly consumed jujube varieties of Bangladesh. A total of 15 (4 local/deshi and 11 exotic) varieties of matured jujube fruits were collected from the different markets and local areas of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh, and analyzed for this study. The study results revealed that all studied physical properties were lower in local/deshi sour varieties of jujube, and <em>BAU kul</em> contained the maximum amount of flesh (edible part of fruits) along with flesh and seed ratio. Among the biochemical properties- titratable acidity, vitamin C, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total sugar and reducing sugar content varied from 0.178-2.769%, 33.28-98.63 mg/100 g flesh, 0.0019-0.0174 mg/g tissue, 0.0007-0.0148 mg/g tissue, 2.50-9.83% and 0.135-4.150%, respectively. The study results revealed that local/deshi varieties contained a comparatively higher amount of vitamin C and lower total sugar. However, <em>BARI kuls </em>contained significantly higher amounts of vitamin C and chlorophylls compared to other exotic varieties. The content of Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and S in jujube varieties ranged from 0.040-0.233%, 0.071-0.164%, 0.054-0.189%, 0.490-2.602%, 0.062-0.234% and 0.079-0.359%, respectively. Regarding major nutrients studied, Ca, Na, K, P, and S contents were higher in local/deshi sour varieties while Mg content was higher in exotic varieties. The study results concluded that most of the biochemical and mineral contents in local/deshi sour jujube fruits were higher, allowing breeders to develop new varieties and improve the quality of existing exotic cultivars.</p> 2021-05-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Growth and Development of Helicoverpa armigera Hubner 2021-05-13T09:32:15+00:00 D. V. Sravan Kumar P. V. Krishnayya M. Srinivasa Rao P. Anil Kumar V. Srinivasa Rao <p>Climate change is an imminent and inevitable circumstance largely driven by increase in CO<sub>2</sub> and temperature. CO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;directly affects plants through positive effects on net photosynthetic rate. Higher temperature during the crop growth phase can diminish the yield, with a longer growing season. In the present study, adverse climate conditions i.e. elevated CO<sub>2 </sub>(550 ppm) and elevated temperatures (29, 31, 33 and 35 ± 1 °C) were simulated in carbon dioxide and temperature gradient chambers (CTG).&nbsp; Growth and development of <em>H</em><em>elicoverpa armigera</em> on non-Bt and Bt cotton leaves from those CTG chambers were recorded and correlated with foliar carbohydrates and proteins.It was found that protein content decreased by almost 42 % in non-Bt cotton and by 36 % in Bt cotton, while larval weight and duration decreased significantly with elevated conditions particularly in Bt cotton.&nbsp; Relative Growth Rate (RGR) increased with <em>e</em>CO<sub>2</sub>+ <em>e</em>Temp and is relatively less in non-Bt cotton compared to Bt cotton by 4-13 mg g<sup>-1 </sup>day<sup>-1</sup>. Lower protein content is positively correlated significantly to larval growth rate (r = 0.9**). Effects of climate change on crops and their pests have to be further quantified precisely to develop plausible stress mitigation strategies.</p> 2021-05-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth and Vitellaria paradoxa Seed Oil in Storage of Cowpea under Ventilated and Non-ventilated Conditions 2021-05-15T11:39:37+00:00 M. O. Omobowale O. P. Akomolafe <p>Storage of cowpea is highly constrained by insect pest infestation and losses caused by the cowpea weevil (<em>Callosobruchus maculatus</em>, F.) are high. Several methods have been used over the years to protect cowpea grains in storage, but the use of synthetic insecticides is very dominant and this has led to problems, such as the killing of non-target species, user hazards, harmful food residues, and evolution of resistance to chemicals. A search for alternative insect pest control methods which are relatively less harmful to the user and cheaper has become essential. The effectiveness of Diatomaceous earth (DE) and <em>Vitellaria paradoxa</em> seed oil (VPSO) for cowpea storage in polypropylene and jute bags under ventilated and non-ventilated storeroom conditions were investigated over three months period. Crude DE was applied at a dose rate of 1 g/kg of cowpea and a diluted concentration (10% v/v) of <em>VPSO </em>of 400 mL was mixed with 8 kg of cowpea. Live insect count, dead insect count, and germination percentage were assessed weekly while proximate analysis was carried out before and after storage. Mean live insect count increased in the ventilated store-room from 0.67±0.34 to 36.13±19.51insects/kg after 1 month and 3 months of storage respectively for untreated cowpea. Insect population in treated samples increased from 0.38±0.26to 24.78±23.33, and from 0.17±0.30 to 10.75±5.27 for DE and VPSO treated samples, respectively. In the non-ventilated storeroom, insect population increased from 0.33±0.26 to 36.96±19.09 for untreated cowpea, 0.17±0.20 to 33.08±30.07 for DE and 0.21±5.63 to 8.17±11.30 for VPSO treated cowpea. Based on insect count, both treatments were very effective in controlling cowpea weevil in the first two months of storage, however their potency reduced by the third month. The potency of DE deteriorated faster compared to VPSO however, DE treated cowpea was most effective for retaining seed germination in both ventilated and non-ventilated storerooms. Proximate analysis showed that cowpea treated with both treatments had similar nutrient composition after storage. Diatomaceous earth and <em>Vitellaria paradoxa</em> seed oil have potentials in their raw form for short term insect pest control in the storage of cowpea.</p> 2021-05-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Climate Resilient Vegetable Farming: A Review 2021-05-14T13:18:32+00:00 . Shilpa Priyanka Bijalwan <p>Climate change is one of the global challenges faced by the mankind today with the continuously rising temperature, triggering a host of extreme weather events such as heat waves, drought, and flooding. These climate induced challenges are manifesting themselves rapidly, causing socio-economic insecurities and health challenges, particularly in marginalized communities. There is increasing evidence of indirect associations between climate change and the rise in the rates of malnutrition, poor health, hunger and starvation, as well as food and water insecurity. In addition, climate-change impacts have put an additional pressure on already stressed natural resource base, reducing the resilience of agro-ecosystems that are, in part, providing food and nutritional security in rural communities. Tackling these challenges requires a paradigm shift from the current incremental adaptation strategies towards transformative alternatives that also place an equal emphasis on human nutrition and health, as well as environmental sustainability. In the context of marginalized farming communities, a transformative adaptation strategy is defined as one that causes a disruptive, but desirable and sustainable change to the social– ecological state of the system. In the context of this paper, the inclusion of adaptable nutrient dense vegetable crops into marginalized agricultural systems and dominant food systems is considered part of transformative adaptation.</p> 2021-05-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##