Journal of Experimental Agriculture International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Experimental Agriculture International (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-0591)</strong>&nbsp;is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of agriculture and biology. The journal publishes original scientific papers, short communications, review articles and case studies. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Experimental Agriculture International) (Journal of Experimental Agriculture International) Thu, 06 Feb 2020 08:53:55 +0000 OJS 60 Effects of Integrated Use of Calliandra calothyrsus and Maize Stover with Urea on Soil Mineral Nitrogen, Striga Infestation and Maize Yields in Western Kenya <p>This study investigated the effects of applying different combinations of two contrasting plant residues, <em>Calliandra calothyrsus</em> (Calliandra) and maize stover, with urea on<em> Striga</em> infestation and maize yield in western Kenya. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 12 treatments replicated four times was used. The following plant residue: urea combinations was used so as to supply a total of 75 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>in each treatment combination; 75:0, 60:15, 45:30, 30:45, 15:60, and 0:75 for five seasons (2007-2009). A control treatment where no nutrient inputs were applied was included. Calliandra applied at 45 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>plus urea (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) and maize stover applied 15 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>plus urea (60 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) had consistently lower <em>Striga</em> infestation compared other treatments. Negative linear relationship between maize yield and <em>Striga</em> population were observed in the first three seasons i.e. 2007 LR, 2007 SR and 2008 LR. Overall mean maize grain yields over the five seasons were highest (3.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) under maize stover (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) combined with urea (45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) followed by Calliandra (45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) combined with urea (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) with (2.7 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Maize stover (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) in combination with urea (45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) increased maize grain yields relative to the control by 275%, 107% and 155% in the first, second and third seasons respectively. Treatments with Calliandra (45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) in combination with urea (30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) increased maize grain yields relative to the control by 191%, and 233% in the first and third seasons respectively. The control and sole maize stover (75 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) had the lowest yields across all the seasons. The optimum application rate for stover was 30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> nitrogen equivalent while that for Calliandra was 45 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Robert O. Nyambati, Duncan G. Odhiamboz, Cornelius K. Serrem, Caleb O. Othieno, Frank S. Mairura ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 06 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Species Composition and Status of Stored Sorghum Pests in Traditional Farmer’s Storages of Kena District of Koso Zone, Southern Ethiopia <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To determine the species composition and status pests of stored sorghum under traditional storages of farmers in Kenna district of Konso Zone of Southern Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> From peasant association, about three sub-localities were randomly selected and from each sub-locality, three villages were selected at random with using a nested design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Survey was conducted between 1, August to 27, December 2019 in four major sorghum growing peasant association of Kenna district of Southern Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study on determination of the species composition and status pests of stored sorghum was made from of half kilogram of wheat grain sample taken from 720 stores of randomly selected representative farmer’s storages of four peasant associations using key of books related to stored product insects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifteen arthropods species consisting of twelve primary and secondary pests and three natural enemies belonging to four insect orders with in nine families were recorded. Of which, nine species such as <em>S. zeamais</em>, <em>S. oryzae</em>, <em>S. cerealella</em>, <em>T. castaneum</em>, <em>T. confusum</em>, <em>C. ferrugineus</em>, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<em>C. pusillus,</em> <em>R. dominica</em> and <em>P. interpunctella</em>, respectively were found to be the most abundant as they appeared between 3.47 and 19.44 individuals per 100 g of sampled grains. They were also found to be the most frequently occurring as they occurred in the range between 63.89 and 94.44% per 100 g of sample grain collected from survey site and had major pest status.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The traditional methods and practices used by farmers were inefficient for providing adequate protection of their stored sorghum grain pests. Therefore, there is urgent need for designing effective management strategies against insect pest’s sorghum as well as improving the existing farmer’s traditional storage strictures in the survey site in order to reduce the loss of stored sorghum by insect pests and the associated food insecurity.</p> Ararso Gognsha, Berhanu Hiruy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 07 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biological, Serological and Molecular Characterisation of a New Virus Species Infecting Telfairia occidentalis in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria <p><em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> (Hook) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and is an economically important cash crop worldwide. It is widely cultivated in Nigeria including the South Eastern part of the country. This research was aimed at isolating, characterising and identifying a new virus species infecting <em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> in Calabar, Cross River State. Diagnostic tools employed included host range/symptomatology, insect transmission test, Antigen Coated Plate (ACP) Enzyme Linked-Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and gene sequencing. Results revealed that the virus isolate infected only members of the cucurbit family producing rugosity, mosaic, mottle and leaf malformation/deformation. The virus isolate was transmitted by <em>Aphis spiraecola </em>in a fore-gut manner and not by <em>A. citricida</em>. It reacted positively against universal potyvirus antiserum. Sequence analysis showed that the <em>Telfairia</em> <em>occidentalis</em> virus isolate had 75% sequence identity with <em>Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus</em> (MWM) which was found to be the closest. The virus was consequently considered a new species of potyvirus for which the name Telfairia severe mosaic virus (TeSMV) was suggested.</p> O. I. Eyong, A. T. Owolabi, A. A. J. Mofunanya, E. E. Ekpiken ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Parameters do not Detect Yield-limiting Injury from Sub-lethal Rates of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Determine if the use of novel chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters could be utilized to predict yield loss of cotton exposed to sublethal rates of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at various growth stages.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> All trials were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatment means were subjected to analysis of variance and linear regression was utilized to determine relationship between chlorophyll a parameters and yield.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> University of Georgia Gibbs Farm in Tifton, GA, USA and the Sunbelt Agricultural Exposition in Moultrie, GA, USA during the 2013 growing season.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Two sublethal rates of 2,4-D were applied to cotton at six distinct growth stages. The rates consisted of 2 g and 40 g ae ha<sup>-1</sup> equivalent to 1/421 and 1/21 of the full rate (0.532 kg ae ha<sup>-1</sup>), respectively. The sublethal rates were applied to cotton at six growth stages, including the four leaf, nine leaf, first bloom, two, four and six weeks after first bloom growth stages. A fluorometer was used to obtain the fluorescence parameters F<sub>v</sub>/F<sub>m</sub>, Φ<sub>EO</sub> and PI<sub>ABS </sub>from the uppermost fully expanded leaves at various intervals after 2,4-D exposure.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Despite yield losses ranging from 20 – 90% of the non-treated control, no consistent patterns resulted from utilizing fluorescence transients to detect 2,4-D injury and overall instances of significant difference were minimal and typically not biologically relevant. In many cases, treatments exposed to 2,4-D that exhibited yield loss showed evidence of greater photosynthetic efficiency than the non-treated control. In the majority of instances, many of fluorescence parameters measured fell within ranges observed in previous studies in cotton produced under typical or non-stressed conditions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> While it has been proven as a valuable tool in other plant screening endeavors, chlorophyll a fluorescence were not able to detect the effects of sub-lethal rates of 2,4-D on cotton, even in instances that resulted in severe yield loss.</p> Seth A. Byrd, John L. Snider, Timothy L. Grey, A. Stanley Culpepper, Jared R. Whitaker, Phillip M. Roberts, Daryl R. Chastain, Wesley M. Porter, Guy D. Collins ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 12 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Azospirillum brasilense Inoculants to Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Micro-region of Curitibanos (SC) <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <em>A. brasilense </em>inoculants to the development of wheat at the southern part of Brazil.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experimental design was randomized block with twelve treatments, containing two liquid inoculants with the <em>A. brasilense</em> strains Ab-V5 and Ab-V6, with or without nitrogen fertilization and five replicates. The plot area was 4m per 6m and thirty-two rows. The seeds inoculation was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendation, and manual sowing. The top-dressing N fertilization was Urea (Super N- 45%N) at 20 days after emergence (DAE), at 120 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (full dosage) or 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (half dosage).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The experiment was performed in a farm in Curitibanos county in Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out on July to November 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>At 45 DAE, it was performed flag leaves N content Tedesco, et al. [1]. At 115 DAE, it was performed dry shoot weight, plant height, ear sizes, grain N contents and grain yield. The results were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA) and media compared by Scott-Knot's test at 5% of significance.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There was no statistical difference for shoot dry weight, plant height, ear size and yield. The N leaf content was greater with Ab-V5 inoculation and half N dosage (HC5 - 109% higher than the control). The N grain content was greater with the two strains (inoculant B) without, half and full N dosage (WC56 - 51%, HCB56 - 76% and CB56 - 65%, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>A. brasilense </em>strains had the ability to increase wheat N accumulation with lower N fertilizing, suggesting their potential as growth inducers, emphasizing the importance of further studies to confirm and understand the mechanisms involved.</p> William Gilberto Balbinot, André Luis Gordechuk, Géssica Rogaleski Eutrópio, Cibele Medeiros, Glória Regina Botelho ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Rice Residue Management Options on Growth Parameters and Growth Indices of Rice Crop <p>The research was conducted to study the effect of management options for combine harvested rice residue and its effect on succeeding rice crop growth responses. The experiment was laid out in field using a randomized block design with nine treatments and replicated three times. The computed biometric data were subjected to statistical scrutiny.&nbsp; Incorporation of combine harvested rice residue with 25 kg additional N ha<sup>-1</sup> as basal + bio-mineralizer (2 kg t<sup>-1</sup> of rice residue) and cow dung slurry (5%) recorded higher plant height, number of tillers, dry matter production (DMP), leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and relative growth rate (RGR) of the succeeding rice irrespective of the growth stages. It was closely followed by straw incorporation with 25 kg additional N ha<sup>-1</sup> as basal + cow dung slurry (5%). Incorporation of straw alone and removal of straw negatively influenced the rice growth and growth indices. Hence, it is advisable to incorporation of rice residue with additives for better growth and growth indices of rice crop.</p> A. Vijayaprabhakar, S. Nalliah Durairaj, M. Hemalatha, M. Joseph ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Late Maturing Pro-vitamin A Synthetic Maize (Zea mays L.) Breeding Lines <p>This study was conducted in a rainforest ecology of Southwestern Nigeria during 2016 and 2017 cropping seasons under rainfed conditions to estimate character association and path coefficient of grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and its component characters, to identify characters whose selection could be used in improving maize grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Fourteen late-maturing pro-vitamin A maize (PVAM) synthetics were conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The following agronomic characters were recorded: plant stands per plot, days to 50% tasselling, days to 50% silking, anthesis-silking interval, plant height (cm), ear height (cm), number of ears harvested, field weight (kg), and grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>). In both 2016 and 2017, plant stands per plot, the number of ears harvested and field weight (kg) correlated positively and significantly with grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>) at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Also, in both years, positive and significant phenotypic and genotypic correlations were found for plant stands per plot with number of ears harvested and field weight (kg), days to 50% tasselling with days to 50% silking, plant height (cm) with ear height (cm) and number of ears harvested with field weight (kg). Path analysis for both years at the phenotypic and genotypic levels identified field weight (kg) and the number of ears harvested to have a positive direct effect on grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>), an indication that optimum plant population per plot is paramount to increasing grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>). Hence, the number of ears harvested and field weight (kg) are characters that could be considered in the improvement of maize grain yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>).</p> David Oluwagbenga Olawamide, Lawrence Stephen Fayeun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Screening Sorghum Accessions for Resistance against Anthracnose and Grain Mold through Inoculating with Pathogens <p><strong>Aims</strong><strong>:</strong> The aim of this study was to identify resistant accessions against pathogens, causing anthracnose and grain mold.</p> <p><strong>Study Design</strong><strong>:</strong> Study was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data for anthracnose rating, grain mold severity, seed weight, and percent germination rate were analyzed using the command PROC GLM.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study</strong><strong>:</strong> The study was carried out at the Texas AgriLife Research Farm, Burleson County, Texas, in 2010, 2014, and 2015 growing seasons.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> Forty-seven accessions were planted in 6 m rows 0.31 m spacing. Plants were inoculated by placing <em>Colletotrichum</em> <em>sublineola </em>colonized grain in the plant whorls 30 days after planting. Disease evaluation was initiated 30 days post-inoculation and thereafter on a weekly basis for three consecutive weeks. <em>Grain mold experiment</em>: Three treatments were used: 1) plants sprayed with <em>A. alternata</em> alone<em>,</em> 2) a mixture of <em>A. alternata</em>,<em> F. thapsinum </em>and <em>C. lunata</em>, 3) control plants sprayed with sterilized water and exposed to natural infection. At 50% bloom, three panicles per line within replication were inoculated for each treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>Eleven accessions, including PI641874, PI656070, PI656115, and PI534167 were consistently resistant when challenged with the anthracnose pathogen, <em>C. sublineola</em>. Accessions PI534047 and PI574455, exhibited resistance to moderately resistance grain mold response when challenged with the treatments. Seed weight, germination rate, and mycoflora analysis which are factors in determining grain mold resistance also were measured. Across the accessions, mean seed weight ranged from1.4 g to 4.3 g per 100 kernel and germination rate ranged from 26 to 87%.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> The resistant accessions identified in this study can be used in breeding programs to develop anthracnose and grain mold resistance lines.</p> Louis K. Prom, Hugo Cuevas, Thomas Isakeit, Clint Magill ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 19 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Response of the Growth of Cowpea Varieties Submitted to Organic Fertilization Produced under a Regosol in the Semiarid Region of Paraiba <p>The objective of this work was to compare growth parameters of traditional varieties of cowpea with commercial varieties based on agroecological processes in the semi - arid region of Paraiba. The experiment was installed in the factorial scheme of 3 blocks x 4 treatments x varieties: T1- control (without addition of inputs), T2- 10 t ha-1 organic compound (being, bovine manure + vegetal materials), T3- 4.2 t ha-1 rock powder, and T4- 5 t ha-1 of rock dust + 2.1 t ha-1 organic compound, x 3 varieties, being, 02 commercials identified as, 1- New Age and 2- Guaribas (provided by EMBRAPA), and 01 traditional, 3- Sedinha (already in common use by farmers). The field project was developed in partnership with the Advisory and Services in Alternative Agriculture (AS-PTA), which was also used as an experimental unit, located in the city of Esperança - PB, the soil of the area was classified as a Regosol, the growth parameters were: number of plants (NP), plant height (AP), leaf number (NF), leaf area (FA), stem diameter (DC). The Sedinha variety was the one that stood out in relation to the others when comparing growth parameters such as height and leaf area, while the Guaribas variety obtained a larger caulinar diameter. The treatment with the organic compound proved to be the most efficient for all varieties, but for the treatment with rock dust, it will require further studies due to the high levels of sodium and low phosphorus, which may explain the low development.</p> Cássio Ricardo Gonçalves da Costa, Marcos Gomes da Silva, Vânia da Silva Fraga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Cattle Manure on the Growth, Yield, Quality and Shelf Life of Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. cv. Detroit Dark Red) <p>Beetroot (<em>Beta vulgaris</em> L.) is one of the widely and popularly used salad vegetable in the Kingdom of Eswatini: However, there is scarcity of information pertaining to its organic production. A field study laid out in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) was conducted at the Horticulture Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Luyengo Campus, at the University of Eswatini to determine the effects of cattle manure on growth, yield, quality and shelf-life of beetroot. Five treatments were applied in this experiment, and included cattle manure applied at 20, 40, 60, and 80 t/ha and a control of inorganic fertilizer, NPK [2:3:2 (22)] applied at 100 kg/ha as basal dressing and limestone ammonium nitrate (LAN) (28) applied at 80 kg as a top dressing. The treatments were replicated four times. The results obtained showed that beetroot grown under the application rate of 80 t/ha exhibited higher values in plant height (32.5 cm), number of leaves (9), leaf area (206 cm<sup>2</sup>), root diameter (5.1 cm), root length (11.7 cm), root fresh mass/plant (10.8 g), root dry mass/plant (9.2 g), marketable yield/plant (9.2 g) and quality [(aroma (33.5%), flavour (34%), texture (35%)] of the edible part. Plants supplied with 20 t/ha of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser (control) gave the lowest vegetative growth parameters, quality parameters and marketable yield.</p> Vusumuzi C. Dlamini, Kwanele A. Nxumalo, Michael T. Masarirambi, Paul K. Wahome, Tajudeen O. Oseni, Mathole G. Zwane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 22 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Resources for Fertility Restoration Lines and Maintainers of Capsicum annuum L. <p>Male fertility reactions of one hundred and forty-one accessions of chilies were classified. Three groups were found. Some accessions maintained male sterility and were determined to carry a non-sterile cytoplasm and to lack fertility restoration genes or <em>N rfrf</em> genotype. Some accessions segregated for the ability to restore male sterile cytoplasm and were determined to be heterozygous in restorer genes with genotype <em>N/SRfrf</em>. Some accessions restored fertility of CMS and had the genotype <em>N/SRfRf</em>. A few maintainers with good horticultural characteristics were selected. They were selfed and selected for a few generations and then their progeny were evaluated. There were differences in the genetic stability of cytoplasmic male-sterility among the selected lines. Some lines were good maintainers, but a few lines were discarded. The stable maintainers were distributed to 10 seed companies and the government of China. Some F1 hybrid chilies produced using these lines have been commercially sold both in China and Thailand. Fruit physio-chemical qualities of maintainer accessions, restorers and heterozygous accessions were also recorded. The level of capsaicin of the accessions varied from 3,250 to 8,850 Scoville units. The level of vitamin C showed a range of 4.43 to 103.16 mg./100g.fw. Horticultural characteristics of the accessions were recorded and the fruit physio-chemical qualities of the accessions were reported.</p> Maneechat Nikornpun, Danai Boonyakiat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 22 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Poultry Manure Rates on the Growth and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) in Rivers State <p>Knowledge of optimum rates of poultry manure application is of immense significance in the correction of the soil nutrient deficiencies for crop production. Manure application is of importance to both the soil amendment and in the growth and yield of crops. Leaching, pattern of cropping, use of non-certified seeds and non-improved varieties have hampered the efficient growth and yield of okra. The study was conducted to examine the growth and yield responses of okra (<em>Abelmoschus esculentus </em>(L.) Moench) to poultry manure rates in Rivers State. The research study became imperative to examine how rate of poultry manure could affect the production of okra. The experiment utilized three rates of poultry manure, 0-tons (control), 5-tonsha<sup>-1</sup> and 10-tonha<sup>-1</sup>and the treatment combination arranged in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) replicated three times. Growth characteristics measured were, plant height, stem thickness, leaf area and number of leaves per plant while yield parameters measured were pod length, seeds per pod, total number of pods, pod yield per hectare. The results revealed that appropriate rate of poultry manure application in the production of okra has the capacity to increase okra growth and yield in Rivers State. The use of 10-tonha<sup>-1 </sup>of poultry manure performed better than other poultry manure rates and so it’s recommended that okra farmers in the study area should apply 10-tonha<sup>-1 </sup>for high quality and quantity production of okra in&nbsp; Rivers State.</p> O. L. Adesina, K. O. Wiro ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000