PRANAM-Ca: An Eggshell Derived Calcium Fertilizer and Its Impact on Blossom end Rot in Tomato Cultivation

Akash Bhargaw

Multiplex R&D Lab, C-428, Peenya 1st Phase, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Rajarshi Dasgupta

Multiplex R&D Lab, C-428, Peenya 1st Phase, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Pooja D. V.

Multiplex R&D Lab, C-428, Peenya 1st Phase, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Amaresh Hadimani

Multiplex R&D Lab, C-428, Peenya 1st Phase, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Mahesh G. Shetty

Multiplex R&D Lab, C-428, Peenya 1st Phase, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

S. K. Ghosh *

Multiplex R&D Lab, C-428, Peenya 1st Phase, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Eggshells, amounting to a staggering 76.7 million tons annually, are often inadequately disposed of in landfills, leading to significant nutrient loss for both plants and humans, while contributing to environmental pollution and emitting unpleasant odors. In response to these challenges, recent research has been dedicated to repurposing eggshells, exploring their applications in diverse fields such as biochemistry, biomedicine, environmental technology, and agriculture. Recognized as an exceptional source of calcium, eggshells offer notable benefits for calcium-demanding crops, including tomatoes, chilli and cotton. In a comprehensive study conducted, we investigated the application of organic foliar calcium derived from eggshells on tomato plants. The results demonstrated substantial improvements in addressing physiological disorders, promoting overall growth, and enhancing yield, signifies the importance of calcium fertilizer for growing healthy crop.  With this background, Multiplex R&D team has made an effort to develop an in-house technology to derive the calcium from waste eggshell. Afterwards, how to scale-up and commercialise it as a sprayable form of Organic calcium fertilizer, PRANAM-CA. Present paper aims to describe the technique to derive calcium from eggshell and its impact on managing the blossom end rot in Tomato cultivation under protected glass-house condition.

Keywords: Egg Shell Derive Calcium (ESDC), Blossom End Rot (BER), tomato cultivation, foliar spray, calcium chloride, calcium carbonate

How to Cite

Bhargaw, A., Dasgupta, R., Pooja D. V., Hadimani, A., Shetty, M. G., & Ghosh , S. K. (2024). PRANAM-Ca: An Eggshell Derived Calcium Fertilizer and Its Impact on Blossom end Rot in Tomato Cultivation. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 46(2), 78–85.


Download data is not yet available.


Anonymous. Top Five egg producing countries & companies, Essential Protein Trade and shipping news;2023. Available: (Accessed on 8th December, 2023)

Shahbandeh M. Egg production worldwide. 2023;1990-2021. Available: 1990/#statisticContainer (Accessed on 8th December 2023).

Huntun P. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science. 2005;7(2):67 – 71.

Butcher GD, Miles R. Concepts of eggshell quality. Veterinary Medicine-Large Animal Clinical Sciences Department, UF/IFAS extension; 2019. University of Florida. VM69 series. Available: (Accessed on 8th December 2023)

Kattimani V, Panga GS, Girija EK. Eggshell membrane separation methods-waste to wealth-a scoping review. Journal of Poultry Research. 2022;19(1):11-8.

Verma N, Kumar V, Bansal MC. Utilization of egg shell waste in cellulase production by neurospora crassa under wheat bran-based solid state fermentation. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2012;21(2):491-497.

Hamester MR, Balzer PS, Becker D. Characterization of calcium carbonate obtained from oyster and mussel shells and incorporation in polypropylene. Materials Research. 2012;15:204-8.

Ajala EO, Eletta OA, Ajala MA, Oyeniyi SK. Characterization and evaluation of chicken eggshell for use as a bio-resource. Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment. 2018;14(1):26-40.

Faridi H, Arabhosseini A. Application of eggshell wastes as valuable and utilizable products: A review. Research in Agricultural Engineering. 2018;64(2).

Vandeginste V. Food waste eggshell valorization through development of new composites: A review. Sustainable Materials and Technologies. 2021;29: 00317.

Neves MA. Alternativas para a valorização da cacao de ovo como complemento alimental e em implantes ósseos.

Boron L. Citrato de cálcio obtido da casca de ovo: biodisponibilidade e uso como suplemento alimentar.

Khan A, Anwar Y, Hasan MM, Iqbal A, Ali M, Alharby HF, Hakeem KR, Hasanuzzaman M. Attenuation of drought stress in Brassica seedlings with exogenous application of Ca2+ and H2O2. Plants. 2017;6(2):20.

Tuna AL, Kaya C, Ashraf M, Altunlu H, Yokas I, Yagmur B. The effects of calcium sulphate on growth, membrane stability and nutrient uptake of tomato plants grown under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2007;59(2):173-8.

Sarwat M, Ahmad P, Nabi G, Hu X. Ca2+ signals: the versatile decoders of environmental cues. Critical Reviews in biotechnology. 2013;33(1):97-109.

Horst Marschner. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic press; 1995.

Zorrig W, Shahzad Z, Abdelly C, Berthomieu P. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa). African Journal of Biotechnology. 2012;11(34):8441-8.

Ahmad P, Sarwat M, Bhat NA, Wani MR, Kazi AG, Tran LS. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Brassica juncea L.(Czern. & Coss.) by calcium application involves various physiological and biochemical strategies. PloS One. 2015;10(1):e0114571.

Shear CB. Calcium-related Disorders of Fruits and Vegetables1. HortScience. 1975;10(4):361-5.

Taylor MD, Locascio SJ. Blossom-end rot: A calcium deficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2004;27(1):123-39.

Ho LC, Adams P, Li XZ, Shen H, Andrews J, Xu ZH. Responses of Ca-efficient and Ca-inefficient tomato cultivars to salinity in plant growth, calcium accumulation and blossom-end rot. Journal of Horticultural Science. 1995;70(6):909-18..

Ustun N, Altunlu H, Yokaş I, Saygili H. Influence of potassium and calcium levels on severity of tomato pith necrosis and yield of greenhouse tomatoes. In II International Symposium on Tomato Diseases 808 2007 Oct 8 (pp. 347-350).

Shabbir RN, Ashraf MY, Waraich EA, Ahmad R, Shahbaz M. Combined effects of drought stress and NPK foliar spray on growth, physiological processes and nutrient uptake in wheat. Pak. J. Bot. 2015;47(4):1207-16.

Peyvast G, Olfati JA, Ramezani-Kharazi P, Kamari-Shahmaleki S. Uptake of calcium nitrate and potassium phosphate from foliar fertilization by tomato. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 2009;1(1):7-13.

Gaonkar M, Chakraborty AP. Application of eggshell as fertilizer and calcium supplement tablet. International Journal of Innovative research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2016;5 (3):3520-5.

Chaudhry MF, Khokhar KM, Hussain SI, Mahmood T, Iqbal SM. Comparative performance of some local and exotic tomato cultivars during spring and autumn seasons. Pakistan Journal of Arid Agriculture (Pakistan). 1999;2(2).

Jaha JC, Krishi B. Studies on performance of different tomato hybrids in offseason under different planting method in Terai agro-climatic zones of west Bangal. J. Interacademicia. 2001;5(2):186-9.

Jadhav KP, Bidari BI, Shashidara GB, Venkatesh MS. Effect of calcium nitrate foliar application on quality and yield of Byadgi Chilli. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2020;9(6):1628-31.

Somimol PV. Effect of foliar feeding of 19: 19: 19 and potassium nitrate (KNO3) water soluble fertilizers on yield and quality of Byadgi chillies in Vertisols, M. Sc (Agri.) Thesis, Univ. Agric. Sci., Dharwad (India); 2012.

Sarkar RK, Chakraborty A, Saha A. Effect of foliar application of potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1999;44(4):809-12.