Role of Nitrogen in Wheat Production System and Nitrogen for Improving Wheat Yield and Quality: A Review

Akshay Markad *

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab-144002, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Wheat is the staple food across the different parts of the world. To increase the wheat productivity by utilizing the fertilizers. Nitrogen plays a key role in increasing productivity and the quality of the crops. In this review article, we studied the relationship between nitrogen and wheat parameters, the impact of excessive nitrogen used in wheat, NUE (Nitrogen use efficiency) in wheat production, and examined various nitrogen management strategies aimed at enhancing both yield and quality. Different nitrogen application techniques, such as broadcast and side-dressing, have been evaluated, with the rate of nitrogen showing a significant influence on wheat parameters. Key components influencing NUE in wheat farming, including soil characteristics, nitrogen application timing and rate, environmental factors, and crop genetics, are discussed. Furthermore, innovative nitrogen management practices such as precision farming techniques, cover cropping, and the use of biofertilizers as effective strategies for improving NUE and promoting sustainable wheat production. The abstract underscores the importance of balancing nitrogen application to meet crop demands at different growth stages while minimizing nitrogen losses and environmental risks. By integrating advanced technologies, agronomic practices, and scientific insights, farmers can optimize nitrogen use efficiency in wheat production systems, thereby enhancing both yield and quality outcomes.

Keywords: Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), wheat production, nitrogen management, yield improvement, quality enhancement


How to Cite

Markad , Akshay. 2024. “Role of Nitrogen in Wheat Production System and Nitrogen for Improving Wheat Yield and Quality: A Review”. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International 46 (7):599-609. https://doi.org/10.9734/jeai/2024/v46i72613.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Mastrangelo AM, Cattivelli L. What makes bread and durum wheat different?. Trends in plant science. 2021;26(7):677-684.

Yadav G, Anshuman K, Singh A, Yadav S, Singh P. Impact of Azotobacter and Nitrogen on Growth and Productivity of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Int. J. Plant Soil Sci. 2023;35(5):109-15.

[Accessed on: 2024 Jun. 11]Available:https://journalijpss.com/index.php/IJPSS/article/view/2826

Gebreslasie N, Shimgabr T, Alene H, Tsegay N, Haftu W. Effects of Nitrogen on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under NPSB Blended Fertilizer in Tsegedie and Welkait Districts Westren Zone Tigray, Ethiopia. AJSSPN. 2020;6(1): 31-8. Available:https://journalajsspn.com/index.php/AJSSPN/article/view/119

[Accessed on: 2024 Jun. 11]

Hawkesford MJ. Reducing the reliance on nitrogen fertilizer for wheat production. Journal of Cereal Science. 2014;59(3):276-83.

Basso B, Fiorentino C, Cammarano D, Schulthess U. Variable rate nitrogen fertilizer response in wheat using remote sensing. Precision Agriculture. 2016;17: 168-82.

Madhukar A, Dashora K, Kumar V. Spatial analysis of yield trends and impact of temperature for wheat crop across Indian districts. International Journal of Plant Production. 2021;15(2):325-335.

Devi M, Kumar J, Malik DP, Mishra P. Forecasting of wheat production in Haryana using hybrid time series model. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 2021;5:100175.

Gupta AK, Agrawal M, Yadav A, Yadav H, Mishra G, Gupta R, Singh P. The Effect of Climate Change on Wheat Production: Present Patterns and Upcoming Difficulties. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change. 2023;13(11):4408-4417.

Salim N, Raza A. Nutrient use efficiency (NUE) for sustainable wheat production: A review. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2020;43 (2):297-315.

Jensen ES, Carlsson G, Hauggaard-Nielsen H. Intercropping of grain legumes and cereals improves the use of soil N resources and reduces the requirement for synthetic fertilizer N: A global-scale analysis. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2020;40(1):5.

Fortunato S, Nigro D, Lasorella C, Marcotuli I, Gadaleta A, de Pinto MC. The Role of Glutamine Synthetase (GS) and Glutamate Synthase (GOGAT) in the Improvement of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cereals. Biomolecules. 2023;13(12):1771.

Zuluaga DL, Sonnante G. The use of nitrogen and its regulation in cereals: Structural genes, transcription factors, and the role of miRNAs. Plants. 2019;8(8):294.

Bharati A, Mandal PK. Strategies for Identification of Genes Toward Enhancing Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency in Cereals. Nutrient Dynamics for Sustainable Crop Production. 2020;157-187.

Congreves KA, Otchere O, Ferland D, Farzadfar S, Williams S, Arcand MM. Nitrogen use efficiency definitions of today and tomorrow. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2021;12:637108.

Li S, Li Z, Bi X, Feng B, Wang Z, Wang F, Liu K. Nitrogen fertilizer management on wheat yield and nitrogen utilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2022;45(13):1953-1960.

Rehim A, Khan M, Imran M, Bashir MA, Ul-Allah S, Khan MN, Hussain M. Integrated use of farm manure and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer improves nitrogen use efficiency, yield and grain quality in wheat. Italian Journal of Agronomy. 2020;15(1): 29-34.

Singh VP, Arora A. Intraspecific variation in nitrogen uptake and nitrogen utilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 2001;186(4):239-244.

Ma Q, Wang M, Zheng G, Yao Y, Tao R, Zhu M, Zhu X. Twice-split application of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer met the nitrogen demand of winter wheat. Field Crops Research. 2021;267:108163.

Mahdy AM, Fathi NO, Hafez M. Yield Productivity and Nitrogen Uptake of Wheat Crop Are Highly Dependent on Irrigation Water Availability and Quality under Water-Limited Conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2023; 54(6):836-854.

Ullah G, Khan EA, Awan IU, Khan MA, Khakwani AA, Baloch MS, Ullah MM. Wheat response to fertilizer application techniques and nitrogen levels: II. Crop growth and yield attributes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2013;12(7):636.

Shah KA, Tandel BM, Bhimani GJ. Growth, yield and nutrient contents and uptake by wheat as influenced by different residue management practices and nitrogen levels. Intl J Forestry Crop Improv. 2015;6:64-70.

Yuan J, Sadiq M, Rahim N, Li G, Yan L, Wu J, Xu G. Tillage strategy and nitrogen fertilization methods influences on selected soil quality indicators and spring wheat yield under semi-arid environmental conditions of the loess plateau, China. Applied Sciences. 2022;12(3):1101.

Patel M, Singh M, Kothari M, Chhipa Brij. Importance of sensor-based nitrogen application and effect of growth parameters in wheat crop. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2024;20: 68-74.DOI: 10.15740/HAS/IJAS/20.1/68-74.

Guan GUAN, TU SX, Yang JC, Zhang JF, Li YANG. A field study on effects of nitrogen fertilization modes on nutrient uptake, crop yield and soil biological properties in rice-wheat rotation system. Agricultural Sciences in China. 2011;10(8): 1254-1261.

Mitchell LG, Grant CA, Racz GJ. Effect of nitrogen application on concentration of cadmium and nutrient ions in soil solution and in durum wheat. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 2000; 80(1):107-115.

Sarker KK, Hoque M, Chowdhury AP. Combined Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization and Seeding Rate on Regional Wheat Yield and Yield Components in Bangladesh. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture. 2022;15(4):77-85.

Kubar G. Effect of potassium (K+) on growth, yield components and macronutrient accumulation in Wheat crop. Pure and Applied Biology. 2018;7(4).

Banisaeidi AK, Zand E, Modhj A, Lak S, Baghestani MA. Influence of nitrogen and crop density on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield, yield components and wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L.) suppression; 2014.

Feng Y, Ning T, Li Z, Han B, Han H, Li Y, Zhang X. Effects of tillage practices and rate of nitrogen fertilization on crop yield and soil carbon and nitrogen; 2014.

Hnizil O, Baidani A, Khlila I, Nsarellah N, Amamou A. Assessing the Impact of Nitrogen Fertilization, Variety Selection, Year and Their Interaction on Wheat Yield and Yield Components. Nitrogen. 2024;5 (2):266-287.

Luo X, Keenan TF, Chen JM, Croft H, Colin Prentice I, Smith NG, Zhang Y. Global variation in the fraction of leaf nitrogen allocated to photosynthesis. Nature Communications. 2021;12(1):4866.

Bibi S, Saifullah Naeem A, Dahlawi S. Environmental impacts of nitrogen use in agriculture, nitrate leaching and mitigation strategies. Soil Science: Agricultural and Environmental Prospectives. 2016:131-157.

Boulelouah N, Berbache MR, Bedjaoui H, Selama N, Rebouh NY. Influence of nitrogen fertilizer rate on yield, grain quality and nitrogen use efficiency of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) under Algerian semiarid conditions. Agriculture. 2022;12 (11):1937.

Guo C, Liu X, He X. A global meta-analysis of crop yield and agricultural greenhouse gas emissions under nitrogen fertilizer application. Science of the Total Environment. 2022;831:154982.

Sun Y, Zhu S, Yang X, Weston MV, Wang K, Shen Z, Chen L. Nitrogen diagnosis based on dynamic characteristics of rice leaf image. Plos One. 2018;13(4): e0196298.

Yin X, Gu J, Dingkuhn M, Struik PC. A model-guided holistic review of exploiting natural variation of photosynthesis traits in crop improvement. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2022; 73(10):3173-3188.

Aga TG, Abera FA, Tufa TB, Abebe KA, Abeyo BG, Ayana NG. Nitrogen use efficiency and genotype-by-environment interaction in durum wheat genotypes under varying nitrogen supply. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 2024;70(1):1-18.

Silva CLD, Benin G, Bornhofen E, Todeschini MH, Dallo SC, Sassi LHS. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars in terms of nitrogen use efficiency. Bragantia. 2014;73:87-96.

Todeschini MH, Milioli AS, Trevizan DM, Bornhofen E, Finatto T, Storck L, Benin G. Nitrogen use efficiency in modern wheat cultivars. Bragantia. 2016;75:351-361.

Jinwen YANG, Yugang SH, Huawei SHI, Yubin WANG, Wanghui GUAN, Xue YAN, Daizhen S. UN. Screening of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties with high nitrogen use efficiency under rainfed and irrigated conditions. Turkish Journal of Field Crops. 2019;24(2):121-131.

Singh VP, Arora A. Intraspecific variation in nitrogen uptake and nitrogen utilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 2001;186(4):239-244.

Guttieri MJ, Frels K, Regassa T, Waters BM, Baenzige PS. Variation for nitrogen use efficiency traits in current and historical great plains hard winter wheat. Euphytica. 2017;213(4):1-18.

Govindasamy P, Muthusamy SK, Bagavathiannan M, Mowrer J, Jagannadham PTK, Maity A, Tiwari G. Nitrogen use efficiency—a key to enhance crop productivity under a changing climate. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2023;14: 1121073.

Kanampiu FK, Raun WR, Johnson GV. Effect of nitrogen rate on plant nitrogen loss in winter wheat varieties. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 1997;20(2-3):389-404.

Thomason WE, Raun WR, Johnson GV. Winter wheat fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency in grain and forage production systems. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2000; 23(10):1505-1516.

Zhang X, Li F, Ding Y, Ma Q, Yi Y, Zhu M, Zhu X. Transcriptome analysis of two near-isogenic lines with different NUE under normal nitrogen conditions in wheat. Biology. 2021;10(8):787.

Whetton RL, Harty MA, Holden NM. Communicating nitrogen loss mechanisms for improving nitrogen use efficiency management, focused on global wheat. Nitrogen. 2022;3(2):213-246.

Lu C, Zhang J, Cao P, Hatfield JL. Are we getting better in using nitrogen?: Variations in nitrogen use efficiency of two cereal crops across the United States. Earth's Future. 2019;7(8):939-952.

Bhaskar KA, Al-Hashimi A, Meena M, Meena VS, Langyan S, Shrivastava M, Singh R. Conservation agricultural practices for minimizing ammonia volatilization and maximizing wheat productivity. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2022:1-13.

Shrestha JIBAN, Subedi SUBASH, Timsina KP, Chaudhary A, Kandel M, Tripathi S. Conservation agriculture as an approach towards sustainable crop production: A Review. Farming and Management. 2020;5(1):7-15.

Kayastha S, Behera A, Sahoo JP, Mahapatra M. Growing Green: Sustainable Agriculture Meets Precision Farming: A Review. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika. 2023;38(4):349-355.

Sana N, Mullick S, Bhattacharya K. Integrated farming system-an ecofriendly approach for sustainable agricultural environment. Indian Agriculturist. 2017;61 (3/4):175-180.

Six J, Elliott ET, Paustian K. Soil macroaggregate turnover and microaggregate formation: A mechanism for C sequestration under no-tillage agriculture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2004;36(11):1761–1768.

Singh U, Choudhary AK, Sharma S. Agricultural practices modulate the bacterial communities, and nitrogen cycling bacterial guild in rhizosphere: Field experiment with soybean. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2021;101 (7):2687-2695.

Rebouh NY, Khugaev CV, Utkina AO, Isaev KV, Mohamed ES, Kucher DE. Contribution of eco-friendly agricultural practices in improving and stabilizing wheat crop yield: A review. Agronomy. 2023;13(9):2400.

Bhusal D, Thaku DP. Precision nitrogen management on crop production: A review. Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 2022;7(2):267-271.

Fernandes APG., Machado J, Fernandes TR, Vasconcelos MW, Carvalho SMP. Water and nitrogen fertilization management in light of climate change: Impacts on food security and product quality. Plant Nutrition and Food Security in the Era of Climate Change. 2022:147-178.

Li S, Li Z, Bi X, Feng B, Wang Z, Wang F, Liu K. Nitrogen fertilizer management on wheat yield and nitrogen utilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2022;45(13):1953-1960.

Fan Y, He L, Liu Y, Wang S. Spatiotemporally optimize water-nitrogen management of crop planting in response to carbon emissions mitigation. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2022;380, 134974.

Ierna A, Lombardo GM, Mauromicale G. Yield, nitrogen use efficiency and grain quality in durum wheat as affected by nitrogen fertilization under a Mediterranean environment. Experimental Agriculture. 2016;52(2):314-329.

Fabbri C, Basso B, Napoli M, Dalla Marta A, Orlandini S, Martinez-Feria RA. Developing a tactical nitrogen fertilizer management strategy for sustainable wheat production. European Journal of Agronomy. 2023;144:126746.

Yuan J, Sadiq M, Rahim N, Li G, Yan L, Wu J, Xu G. Tillage strategy and nitrogen fertilization methods influences on selected soil quality indicators and spring wheat yield under semi-arid environmental conditions of the loess plateau, China. Applied Sciences. 2022;12(3):1101.

Li S, Wang X, Kou C, Lv J, Gao J. Crop Yield, Nitrogen Recovery, and Soil Mineral Nitrogen Accumulation in Extremely Arid Oasis Cropland under Long-Term Fertilization Management. Atmosphere. 2022;13(5):754.

Wu L, Zhang G, Yan Z, Gao S, Xu H, Zhou J, Wang K. Optimizing Maize Yield and Resource Efficiency Using Surface Drip Fertilization in Huang-Huai-Hai: Impact of Increased Planting Density and Reduced Nitrogen Application Rate. Agronomy. 2024;14(5):944.

Liu BY, Zhao X, Li SS, Zhang XZ, Virk AL, Qi JY, Zhang HL. Meta-analysis of management-induced changes in nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat in the North China Plain. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020;251:119632.

Wang Y, Peng Y, Lin J, Wang L, Jia Z, Zhang R. Optimal nitrogen management to achieve high wheat grain yield, grain protein content, and water productivity: A meta-analysis. Agricultural Water Management. 2023;290:108587.

Chawla R, Balasaheb KS. Optimizing Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Wheat Crops through Integrated Irrigation and Nitrogen Management: A Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change. 2023; 13(11):4059-4067.

Zhang D, Wang H Li D, Li H, Ju H, Li R, and Li Y. DSSAT-CERES-Wheat model to optimize plant density and nitrogen best management practices. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 2019;114:19-32.

Li T, Zhao D, Li Y, Wang Z, Wen X, Liao Y. Assessment of the effects of integrated rotation-tillage management on wheat productivity in the Loess Plateau region. European Journal of Agronomy. 2023;149: 126906.

Xin Y, Tao F. Optimizing genotype-environment-management interactions to enhance productivity and eco-efficiency for wheat-maize rotation in the North China Plain. Science of the Total Environment. 2019;654:480-492.

Adak S, Bandyopadhyay K, Sahoo RN, Krishnan P, Sehgal VK, Kumar SN, Yeasin MD. Interactive effect of tillage, residue, nitrogen, and irrigation management on yield, radiation productivity and water productivity of winter wheat in semi-arid climate. Journal of Agrometeorology. 2023; 25(3):383-391.

Sarwar N, Wasaya A, Saliq S, Reham A, Farooq O, Mubeen K, Ghani A. Use of natural nitrogen stabilizers to improve nitrogen use efficiency and wheat crop yield; 2019.

Biermacher JT, Epplin FM, Wade Brorsen B, Solie JB, Raun WR. Maximum benefit of a precise nitrogen application system for wheat. Precision Agriculture. 2006;7:193-204.

Vrindts E, Reyniers M, Darius P, Gilot M, Sadaoui Y, Frankinet M, Destain MF. Analysis of soil and crop properties for precision agriculture for winter wheat. Biosystems Engineering. 2003;85(2):141-152.

Pandey H, Singh D, Das R, Pandey D. Precision farming and its application. Smart Agriculture Automation Using Advanced Technologies: Data Analytics and Machine Learning, Cloud Architecture, Automation and IoT. 2021:17-33.

Song C, Ma W, Li J, Qi B, Liu B. Development trends in precision agriculture and its management in china based on data visualization. Agronomy. 2022;12(11):2905.

Panhwar QA, Ali A, Naher UA, Memon MY. Fertilizer management strategies for enhancing nutrient use efficiency and sustainable wheat production. In Organic farming. Woodhead Publishing. 2019:17-39

Li S, Huang YZ, Liu XY, Fu XD. Genetic improvement of nitrogen use efficiency in crops. Yi chuan= Hereditas. 2021;43(7): 629-641.

Santillano-Cázares J, Núñez-Ramírez F, Ruíz-Alvarado C, Cárdenas-Castañeda ME, Ortiz-Monasterio I. Assessment of fertilizer management strategies aiming to increase nitrogen use efficiency of wheat grown under conservation agriculture. Agronomy. 2018;8(12):304.

Ji-Ping D, Jing-Han L, Jia-Huan L, Wei-Feng Z, Xiang-Ping J. ICT-based agricultural advisory services and nitrogen management practices: A case study of wheat production in China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2022;21(6):1799-1811.

Thammaiah MK, Sharma VK, Parihar CM, Barman M, Dey A, Chakraborty D. Long term conservation agriculture impact on soil nitrogen fractions and wheat (Triticum aestivum) yield in subtropical Inceptisol. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2023;93(8):930-935.

Bai N, Mi X, Tao Z, Kang J, He G, Wang Z. China’s nitrogen management of wheat production needs more than high nitrogen use efficiency. European Journal of Agronomy. 2022;139:126557.

Grzebisz W, Gaj R, Sassenrath GF, Halloran JM. Fertilizer use and wheat yield in Central and Eastern European countries from 1986 to 2005 and its implication for developing sustainable fertilizer management practices. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2012; 43(18):2358-2375.

Gad AB, Shalaby MM, Hassanein HG, Ali EA, Said MT. Effect of preceding crop, rates and splitting of nitrogen fertilizer on bread wheat production and nitrogen use efficiency. Journal of Plant Production. 2018;9(8):663-669.

Yu Y, Yang L, Hou P, Xue L, Odindo AO. Nitrogen management in the rice–wheat system of China and South Asia. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 32: Waste Recycling and Fertilisation. 2018;135-167.