Inoculum Level and Inoculation Method Influences on the Pathogenic Activities of Meloidogyne incognita in Studied Model Plant Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International,
Agricultural activities such as watering crops with nematode-infested water from wells and boreholes, and using infected plant debris as manure or mulch increase root-knot nematode infection. So, this study aims at assessing the influence of the inoculation method and inoculum level of Meloidogyne incognita on the development of root galls on okra plants. Two M. incognita inoculation methods (suspension of individuals and galled root explants) and six inoculum levels (0, 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 second-stage larvae/plant) were studied. The gall index, total numbers and reproductive factor of M. incognita were used to assess the effect of treatments on root gall development. Unlike the reproductive factor, gall index and the total numbers of M. incognita increased with their inoculum level. The pathogenic activities of M. incognita were most significant when crop soils were infested with galled root explants. However, an inverse relationship was found between the inoculum levels of M. incognita and the okra plant’s development. It is reflected by negative correlation coefficients ranging from -0.90 to -0.62. It is therefore important to burn roots infected with root-knot nematodes left in fields so that they do not act as an inoculum for crops.
- Pathogenic activities
- root galls
- Meloidogyne incognita
- inoculum level
How to Cite
Nzikou J, Mvoula-Tsieri M, Matouba E. A study on gumbo seed grown in Congo Brazzaville for its food and industrial applications. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(24):2469-2475.
Ekunwe PA, Alufohai G, Adolue CF. Economic viability of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) production in Ika south and north east local government areas of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. 2018;17(1):57-62.
Naveed A, Khan AA, Khan IA. Generation mean analysis of water stress tolerance in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2009;41:195-205.
Mihretu Y, Wayessa G, Adugna D. Multivariate analysis among okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) collection in south western Ethiopia. Journal of Plant Sciences. 2014;9(2):43-50.
Ndunguru J, Rajabu AC. Effect of okra mosaic virus disease on the above-ground morphological yield components of okra in Tanzania. Scienta Horticulturae. 2004;99:225-235.
Ngbede SO, Onyegbule UN, Ibekwe HN, Uwalaka OA, Okpara SC. Economic anaylsis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) production under different rates of organic manure in Okigwe, Southern Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Science. 2014;2(2):96-99.
Habtamu FG, Negussie R, Gulelat DH, Ashagrie ZWFB. Nutritional quality and health benefits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus): A Review. Global Journal of Medical Research. 2014; 14(5):1-11.
Edet GE, Etim NA. Economic analysis of okra production: a case of Ivo Local government area of Ebonyi State. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture Food & Environment. 2010;6(1&2):99-103.
Farroq A, Umer R, Muhammad A, Muhammad N. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production. Applied Energy. 2010;87(3):779-785.
Fondio L, Kouamé C, Djidi A, Traoré D. Characterization of cropping systems integrating okra in urban and peri-urban market gardening in Bouaké in central Côte dIvoire. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Science. 2011;5 (3):1178-1189. French.
FAOSTAT. Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics Database. Available:http://www.fao.org/faostat/fr/#data/QC. Accessed on January 19th 2021.
CNLVC. National Council for the Fight against Expensive Living. Available:https://cnlvc.ci/2017/05/31/gombo. Accessed February 20, 2021. French.
Fondio L, Djidji AH, Kouamé C, Aïdara S, Hala N. Growing okra well in Ivory Coast. CNRA, Technical sheet; 2007. French
Sikora RA, Fernandez E. Nematodes parasites of vegetables. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, editors. Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. 2nd ed. Wallingford: CAB International; 2005.
Safiuddin S, Sheila S, Shweta S. Pathogenicity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and root-rot fungus, Rhizoctonia solani on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). E-Journal of Science and Technology. 2011;3(6):97-102.
Kaskavalci G. Effect of soil solarization and organic amendment treatment for controlling Meloidogyne incognita in tomato cultivars in Western Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Agriculture. 2007;31: 156-167.
Nnadi OF, Ononuju CC, Ikwunagu EA, Orikara CC. The effect of air-dried leaf powder and burnt leaf ash of different plants on Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) On okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2019; 41(1):1-8.
Lehman SP. Dissemination of phytoparasitic nematodes. Nematology circular. 1994;208:4.
Djian-Caporalino C, Védie H, Arrufat A. Management of root-knot nematodes: conventional control and alternative controls. The advantage of trap plants. Phytoma. 2009;624:21-25. French.
Van Gundy SD. Ecology of Meloidogyne spp. Emphasis on environmental factors affecting survival and pathogenicity. In: Sasser JN, Caryer CC, editors. An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne. 1st ed. Raleigh; 1985.
Hussey RS, Barker KR. A comparison of methods of collecting inocula of Meloidogyne spp. including a new technique. Plant Disease Reporter. 1973; 57:1025-1028.
Bridge J, Page SLJ. Estimation of root-knot nematode infestation levels on roots using a rating chart. Tropical Pest Management. 1980;26:296-298.
Zewain QK. Evaluation of some chemical nematicides and organic formulations in management of root knot nematode Meloidogyne on eggplant. Journal of Tikrit University for Agricultural Sciences, Third Scientific Conference for Plant Production, Tikrit; 2014.
Coyne DL, Nicol JM, Claudius-Cole B. Les nématodes des plantes: Un guide pratique des techniques de terrain et de laboratoire. Cotonou, Institut International dAgriculture Tropicale (IITA); 2010. French.
Gheysen G, Mitchum MG. How nematodes manipulate plant development pathways for infection. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2011;14:415-421.
Bartlem DG, Jones MGK, Hammes UZ. Vascularization and nutrient delivery at root-knot nematode feeding sites in host roots. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2013;65:1789-1798.
Hussain MA, Iram F, Tariq M, Aslam MN, Kayani MZ. Effect of inoculum density of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on damage potential in eggplant. Mycopathology. 2015;13(1):33-36.
Kayani MZ, Tariq M, Hussain MA. Interaction between nematode inoculum density and plant age on growth and yield of cucumber and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 2018;50(3):897-902.
Kankam F, Adomako J. Influence of inoculum levels of Root Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Science. 2014;2(2): 171-178.
Azam T, Hisamuddin SS, Robab MI. Effect of different inoculum levels of Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of Lycopersicon esculentum, and internal structure of infected root. Archive of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 2011;44(18):1829-1839.
Ndiaye A. Influence de facteurs abiotiques et biotiques sur la multiplication et la morphologie de quelques Nématodes phytoparasites de la région soudano-sahélienne. Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar; 1994. French.
Kwoseh CK. Identification of resistance to major nematodes pests of yams (Dioscorea spp.) in West Africa. University of Reading, United Kingdom; 2000.
Baimey H. Scutellonema bradys as a pathogen of yam in Benin. University of Pretoria, South Africa; 2005.
Ogunfowora AO. Effects of different population levels of Meloidogyne incognita on the yield of tomato in south Western Nigeria. Plant Protection. 1977;3:61-67.
Baimey H, Coyne D, Nico L. Assessment of inoculation methods in evaluating response of yam cultivars to infection by Scutellonema bradys. Nematology. 2005;7(3):375-379.
Mukhtar T, Kayani MZ. Comparison of the damaging effects of Meloidogyne incognita on a resistant and susceptible cultivar of cucumber. Bragantia, Campinas. 2020;79(1):83-93.
Wyss U. Feeding behaviour of plant parasitic nematodes. In: Lee DL, editors. The biology of nematodes. London; 2002.
Di Vito M, Vovlas N, Castillo P. Host-parasite relationships of Meloidogyne incognita on spinach. Plant Pathology. 2004;53:508-514.
Khan MR, Khan MW. Effects of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on the sensitivity of tomato to sulphur dioxide and ozone. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 1997;38(2):117-130.
Khan MTA, Mukhtar T, Saeed M. Resistance or susceptibility of eight aubergine cultivars to Meloidogyne javanica. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 2019;51(6):2187-2192.
Abstract View: 81 times
PDF Download: 30 times