Understanding Seed Dormancy and Germination
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International,
Seeds are highly important part of living things, without which life would not exist. All of our daily necessities are totally dependent on seed and seed stock, like food and fruits, so also is many of the natural resources that we use as consumers such as, timber, cotton, paper, essential\edible oils, all which started their live as seeds. Basically, a seed consists of a tiny underdeveloped plant, the embryo, which is enclosed by a covering called the seed coat. Germination of seed occurs when the embryo grows into a functioning plant. It involves the rejuvenation of the metabolic pathways that lead to growth and the emergence of the radicle (root) and plumule (shoot). For germination to occur, three basic factors must exist, the seed must be viable, dormancy must be controlled and the proper environmental conditions for germination must be available. Dormancy simply means the inability of seeds to germinate even when the necessary environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, oxygen, and light) are favorable for germination. Dormancy is a principal factor restricting the production of crops. Several physical and chemical pretreatments can be applied to the organic material (seeds) to control dormancy. This review discusses the conditions necessary for germination and the fundamental factors necessary for breaking dormancy.
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