Growth Performance and Gut Morphological Responses of Broiler Chickens to Fermented Diets
Journal of Experimental Agriculture International,
Aims: Growth performance and gut morphological response of broiler chickens fed moist fermented diets with the inclusion of probiotics or/and organic acids were evaluated in a 56 day feeding trial.
Place and Duration of Study: Poultry unit of the Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria between February 2018 and April 2018
Methodology: Three hundred one-day old unsexed Abor Acre broilers were used for this study. They were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 10 birds each. The experimental treatments were: Diet 1: Dry Unfermented Feed (DUF) - Probiotics (Pr) – Organic acids (Or), Diet 2: Moist Fermented Feed (MFF) – Pr – Or, Diet 3: MFF + Pr, Diet 4: MFF + Or, Diet 5: MFF + Pr + Or. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design.
Results: The feed conversion ratio of broiler starters fed diet 5 (1.96) was significantly (P<.0001) better relative to those of birds fed other diets (2.27, 2.21, 2.14 and 2.13 respectively), while birds in treatment 1 (2.27) had significantly (P<.0001) poor feed conversion ratio. There were no significant (P>.05) differences in the feed conversion ratio of broiler finishers fed MFF with or without feed additives (2.68, 2.64, 2.55 and 2.55). However, the value of feed conversion ratio of birds fed DUF (3.04) was significantly (P=.05) the highest. The duodenal villus height to crypt depth ratio of broiler starters fed MFF+ Pr + Or (7.11) was significantly (P=.05) higher than those of birds fed other diets (2.70, 3.35, 3.98, 4.73 respectively).
Conclusion: Although, feed fermentation enhanced gut morphological parameters which correlates improved growth performance of broiler chickens. The inclusion of probiotics (1g/kg) and organic acids (1g/kg) in the fermentation process further improved the growth indicators of broiler chickens used in this study.
- feed fermentation
- organic acids
- gut morphology
How to Cite
Visek WJ. The Mode of Growth Promotion by Antibiotics. J. Anim. Sci. 1978;46:1447-1469.
Anderson DB, McCracken VJ, Aminov RI, Simpson JM, Mackie RI, Verstegen MWA, Gaskins HR. Gut Microbiology and Growth-Promoting Antibiotics in Swine. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews. Series B: Livestock Feeds and Feeding. 1999;70: 101-188.
Mathivanan R Selvaraj P and Nanjappan K. Feeding of fermented soybean meal on broiler performance .International journal of poultry Science. 2006;5(9):866-872.
Hatta UH and Sundu BB. Effect of copra meal fermented by Aspergillus niger and Trichodermaspp on performance of broilers. International Seminar and Animal Industry Bogor. 2009;23-42.
Canibe N and Jensen BB. Fermented liquid feed-Microbial microbial and nutritional aspects and impact on enteric diseases in pigs. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2012;173:17-40.
Niba A, Beal J, Kudi A and Brooks P. Bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of non-ruminants: influence of fermented feeds and fermentable carbohydrates. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 2009;1393-1407. DOI: 10, 10071511250- 009 – 9327 – 6
Missotten JA, Michiels J, Dierick NI, Ovyn A, Akbarian A and De Smet S. Effect of fermented moist feed on performance, gut bacteria and gut histo-morphology in broilers. Br Poult Sci. 2013;54:627-634.
Sun H, Tang JW, Fang CL, Yao XH, Wu YF, Wang X, et al. Molecular analysis of intestinal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens fed diets containing fermented cottonseed meal. Poult Sci. 2013;92:392-401.
Xie PJ, Huang LX Zhang CH and Zhang YL. Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive. J ApplMicrobiol. 2016; 121:28-40.
Zhang J, Zhu J, Sun J, Li Y. Wang P. Jiang R, et al. Effect of fermented feed on intestinal morphology, immune status, carcass and growth performance of Emei Black chickens FASEB J. 2016;30(Suppl):lb240.
Winsen L, Urlings A, Lipmand LJ and Van Kripen F. Effect of fermented feed on the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2001;67:3071-3076.
Heres L, Wagenaar JA, Van Knapen F, and Urlings B. Passage of salmonella through the group and gizzard of broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed. Avian Pathology. 2003;32:173-181.
Yalda AY, Forbes JM. Food Intake and Growth in chickens given food in the wet form with and without access to drinking water. Br. Poult. Sci. 1995;357-369.
Tannock, G, Fuller WR, Sullivan O, Svensson DJ, Kullen MJ, Klaenhammer TR, McCracken VJ, Gaskins HR, Mercenier A, Reid G and Crittenden RG. Probiotic: a critical review. 3rd ed. Horizon Scientific press USA; 2001.
Zhang, AW, Lee BD, Lee KW, Song GH and Lee CH. Effects of yeast (Saccharomysescervisae) cell components on growth performance, meat quality and ileal mucosa development of broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 2005;84:1015-1021.
Chen KL, Kho WT, Yeu SH, Yeh RH, Tang SW and Hsieh CW. Effect of Bacillus subtilisvar. atto. And Sacchromycescervisae mixed fermented feed on the enhanced growth performance of broiler. Poultry Sci. 2009;88(2):309-315.
Naidu AS. Natural food antimicrobial systems. CRC Press USA. 2000;431-462.
Wolfenden AD, Vicente JL, Bielke LR, Pixley CM, Higgins SE, Donoghue DJ, et al. Effect of defined competitive exclusion culture for prophylaxis and reduction of horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in broiler chickens. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2007;6:489-492.
Fushimi T, Tayama K, Fukaya M, Kitakoshi K, Nakai N, Tsukamoto Y, Sato Y. Acetic acid feeding enhances glycogen repletion in liver and skeletal muscle of rats. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:1973-1977.
Gornowicz E and Dziadek K. The effects of acidifying preparation added to compound feeds on management condition of broiler chickens. Ann. Anim. Sci. 2002;Suppl 1:93-96.
Abdo, M.A. zeinb. Efficacy of acetic acid in improving the utilization of low protein-low energy broiler diets. Egypt. Poultry Science. 2004;24:123-141.
Adeniji AO, Ologhobo AD, Adebiyi OA, Adejumo IO. Effect of methionine and organic acid on apparent nutrient utilization and gut morphology of broiler chicken. Advances in Research. 2015;87-93.
Gauthier R. Intestinal health, the key to productivity (The case of organic acids). XXVLL Convention ANECAWPDSA Puerto Vallarta, Jal. Mexico; 2002.
Goodlad RA, Levi S, Lee CY, Mandir N, Hodgson H and Wright NA. Morphometry and cell proliferation in endoscopic biopsies Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. 1991;101:1235-1241.
Hampson DJ. Alteration in piglet small intestine structure at weaning. Resour. Vet. Sci. 1986;40:32-40.
SAS. Users guide. Statistics version 6.12 . SAS institute , Inc , Cary , NC; 2001.
Omogbenigun FO, Nyachoti, CM, Slominski BA. The effects of supplementing microbial phytase and organic acids to a corn-soybean based diet fed to early weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 2003;81:1806-1813.
Nourmohammadi R and Afzali N. Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on small intestinal morphology in broiler chicken. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 2013;12:44-47.
Fazayeli-Rad AR, Nazarizadeh H, Vakili M, Afzali N and Nourmohammadi R. Effect of citric acid on performance, nutrient retention and tissue biogenic amine contents in breast and thigh meat from broiler chickens. Eur. Poult. Sci. 2014;78:1-9.
Abdel-Fattah SA, EI-Sanhoury MH, EIMednay NM, Abdel-Azeem F. Thyroid activity, some blood constituents, organs morphology and performance of broiler chicks fed supplemental organic acids. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2008;7:215-222.
Ayanwale BA, Kpe M and Ayanwale VA. The effect of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the diets on egg laying and egg quality characteristics of pullets. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2006;5(8):759-763.
Lokman IH, Jawad SH, Zuki ABZ, and Kassim AB. Effect of Dry Probiotic Supplemented Fermented Feed on Production Performance of Akar Putra Chicken. International Journal of Poultry Science. 2015;14(7):420-426.
Naji SA, Al-Zamili IFB, Hasan SA and AlGharawi JKM. The Effects of Fermented Feed on Broiler Production and Intestinal Morphology. Pertanika J. Tropic. Agric. Sci. 2016;39(4):597-607.
Chiang G, Lu WQ, Piao XS, Hu JK, Gong LM and Thacker PA. Effects of feeding solid-state fermented rapeseed meal on performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal ecology and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Asian Australas J Anim Sci. 2010;23:263-271.
Xu FZ, Zeng XG and Ding XL. Effects of replacing soybean meal with fermented rapeseed meal on performance, serum biochemical variables and intestinal morphology of broilers. Asian Australas J Anim Sci. 2012;25:1734-1741.
Liu BY, Wang ZY, Yang HM, Wang XB, Hu P and Lu J. Developmental morphology of the small intestine in Yangzhou goslings. J. Biotechnol. 2010;9 (43):7392-7400.
Yason CV, Summers BA and Schat KA. Pathogenesis of rotovirus infection in various age groups of chickens and turkeys: Pathology. Am. J. Vet. Resour. 1987;48:927-938.
Caspary WF. Physiology and pathophysiology of intestinal absorption. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1992;55:299-308.
Yasar S and Forbes JM. Performance and gastro-intestinal response of broiler chickens fed on cereal grain-based feeds soaked in water. Br. Poult. Sci. 1999; 40:65-76.
Feng J, Liu X, Xu ZR, Wang YZ, Liu JX. Effects of fermented soybean meal on digestive enzyme activities and intestinal morphology in broilers. Poult Sci. 2007; 86:1149-1154.
Abstract View: 73 times
PDF Download: 29 times