Journal of Experimental Agriculture International https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Experimental Agriculture International (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-0591)</strong>&nbsp;is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of agriculture and biology. The journal publishes original scientific papers, short communications, review articles and case studies. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Experimental Agriculture International 2457-0591 Design, Development and Implementation of Real Time Canal and Weather Monitoring Devices https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30752 <p>In the present study, canal depth, velocity and weather monitoring sensors are designed and implemented in the field irrigation laboratory, Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem, Andhra Pradesh, India. The depth sensor which is used in this project is HC-SR04 sensor and the velocity sensor is YF-S403. A method of data acquisition and transmission based on ThingSpeak IOT is proposed. To record weather data (i.e., temperature, humidity, rainfall depth and wind speed) DHT11 sensor, ultrasonic sensor and IR sensors are used. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of real time canal and weather monitoring devices. A structure of real time weather monitoring devices based on sensors and ThingSpeak IOT, a design was developed to realize the independent operation of sensors and wireless data transmission can help in minimizing the error in data collection. Arduino UNO is connected with canal depth and velocity sensor to generate the output, similarly NodeMCU is connected with weather monitoring device. The results revealed that observed sensor data showed good results when compared/calibrated with the existing conventional measurement system. In order to decrease the time and to get accurate value, it is recommended to consider the sensors for the proper use and to access weather data easily. The developed device worked satisfactorily with minimum or no errors.</p> N. V. Gowtham Deekshithulu Joyita Mali V. Vamsee Krishna D. Surekha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 1 13 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130752 Edaphic Aptness of Subarid Soils to Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Production in Social Dynamics Context of Diffa, Niger https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30753 <p>In the eastern Niger, vegetable crops such as lettuce are cultivated along the Komadougou Yobé river and near Lake Chad. Insecurity linked to terrorist groups prevents the exploitation of these areas and leads population to explore other lands. This study aims to find out whether sub-arid soils have in some places potentialities that can allow lettuce cultivation. A pedological survey was first carried out in the study area and some physicochemical soil parameters were analyzed. Then, a randomized experimental design with three cultivars (“Blonde de Paris”, “Iceberg Tahoma”, and “Iceberg edem”) and three replicates was carried out on soils which present favorable conditions for vegetable crops. The lettuce fresh mass was determined at harvest. The results show a significant influence of the geomorphological gradient on texture classes, nitrogen contents, pH values, cation exchange capacity and level of exchangeable bases. The lowland soils are more apt for vegetable crops like lettuce. The mean of lettuce fresh mass obtained for the three cultivars is 4.8±0.5 kg.m<sup>-</sup>². Iceberg Eden records the highest values and seems well adapted to eastern Niger.</p> Boubacar M. Moussa Laouali Abdou Salamatou Abdourahamane Illiassou Ali Mahamane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 14 21 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130753 Influence of Different Crop Establishment and Irrigation Methods on Growth and Growth Indices of Rice https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30754 <p>The increasing global demand for water in many sectors has become a universal concern. Challenge is to develop advanced production systems that allow rice production to be sustained in the face of waning water availability. With the intention to find the efficient water saving technology and establishment method, a field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya, University of Agricultural Sciences, and Bangalore during <em>Kharif </em>2018. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three main plot irrigation treatments and five sub plot rice establishment treatments. The paddy variety used was <em>‘MTU 1001’</em>. Objective was to study the irrigation and establishment methods on growth of rice. The results revealed that, continuous flooding recorded significantly higher plant height (80.67 cm) at harvest. Whereas, alternate wetting and drying (AWD) recorded higher leaf area index (5.06), CGR at 30 to 60 DAS, 60 to 90 DAS and 90 DAS to harvest (1.49,&nbsp; 3.50 and 2.47 g m<sup>-2 </sup>day<sup>-1</sup>, respectively), NAR at 30 to 60 DAS and 60 to 90 DAS (7.19 and 4.37 mg cm<sup>-2</sup> day<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). Among establishment methods, manual transplanting recorded higher plant height (81.82 cm), LAI (5.70), DME (55.77), AGR at 30 DAS (0.36 g day<sup>-1</sup>), CGR at 30 to 60 DAS and 60 to 90 DAS (1.73 and 3.94 g m<sup>-2 </sup>day<sup>-1</sup>, respectively) and LAD at 30 to 60 DAS, 60 to 90 DAS and 90DAS to harvest (49.50, 128.70 and 272.80, respectively). However, mechanical transplanting recorded significantly more number of tillers m<sup>-2</sup> (765.67), NAR at 30 to 60 DAS and 60 to 90 DAS (9.96 and 4.41 mg cm<sup>-2</sup> day<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). AWD method of irrigation in mechanical transplanting and manual transplanting are found to be better among all other methods due to the higher growth and development.</p> T. Theerthana P. S. Fathima G. R. Denesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-01 2021-12-01 22 34 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130754 Soil Suitability for Growing Horticultural Crops in Kanamadi South Sub-Watershed of Karnataka https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30755 <p>The suitability of the land resources in the watershed for various crops is necessary to choose the right crop and variety suitable for the area. In carrying out this assessment, the specific land requirements of a crop are compared with the characteristics of land resource mapped in the sub- watershed with this objective &nbsp;investigation was carried to assess land suitability for growing horticultural crops in Kanamadi South sub-watershed of Vijayapura district of Karnataka. The soil survey was conducted using 1:7920 scale, LISS IV satellite imagery.&nbsp; The soils were shallow to deep with clay loam to clay in texture. The soils were low in nitrogen and organic carbon, low to medium in phosphorus and sulphur, medium to high in potassium. Iron, copper, zinc and manganese were sufficient. Land suitability evaluation revealed that soils were moderately suitable for growing fruits such as guava (73.75% TGA), pomegranate (70.73% TGA), sapota (85.65% TGA). In case of flowers, major part of the study area was marginally suitable for crops such asrose (65.26% TGA) and jasmine (91.72% TGA). Around 11.55 per cent of the area was evaluated as unsuitable for growing fruit crops. The consideration of depth and nutrient status of soil in sub-watershed area is ideal to grow the horticultural crops like fruit crops with soil conservation measures to obtain food sustainability and nutrition level of people living the study area.</p> Ashay D. Souza P. L. Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-02 2021-12-02 35 47 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130755 Impact of Different Nitrogen Levels to the Grain Yield and Yield Components of Some Corn (Zea mays L.) Hybrids https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30756 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The study was designed to elucidate the effect of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on five different maize cultivars.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:&nbsp; </strong>A split plot experimental design in randomized complete blocks (RCBD) with three replicates. Arrangement of seven nitrogen levels and five single cross hybrids were compared. Main plots were nitrogen levels and subplots were varieties.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences at the University of Duhok, Iraq. The study was undertaken fromMarch– August 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>At the present research, five single cross-hybrid corn varieties were used, which were: CADZ, DKC6050, DRACHMA, MYIMY and ZP6468D. Arrangement of seven nitrogen fertilizer levels were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N ha<sup>−1</sup>. The following features were studied: plant height, leaf area index, thousand kernel weight, total grain yield, total chlorophyll, protein% and oil %.The collected data were projected to SAS software program for analysis. The significant differences between treatment means were calculated using Duncan’s multiple ranges.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was reveal that there were significant effect of different nitrogen fertilizer levels, maize genotypes as well as the interaction of nitrogen and genotype of maize (P&lt;.01) for plant height, leaf area index, 1000 kernel weight, total grain yield, total chlorophyll and protein %. However, There were no significant differences between different maize genotypes as well as different nitrogen fertilizer levels (P&gt;.05) with oil %, but the interaction of nitrogen and genotype of maize was significant (P&lt;.01).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Increasing the amount of nitrogen had better effect on studied characteristics of different maize varieties, in which adding 300 kg nitrogen had optimum results. In considering the response of maize varieties to nitrogen, the best variety was DRACHMA genotype while the worst variety was CADZ genotype, however this hybrids was superior in some traits.</p> Wisam Khald Sabri Abdullah Oktem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 48 60 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130756 Acclimatization of Tissue Culture Pineapple Plantlet Using Semi-Autotrophic Hydroponics Technique in Comparison with Other Conventional Substrates https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30757 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Previously conventional substrates consisting of topsoil mixtures have produced low yield and low survival rate of the tissue culture plantlets. Semi-Autotrophic Hydroponics (SAH) technique is being compared with Sawdust (SD) and Topsoil (TS) as a suitable method of acclimatization and further rooting of the plantlets. This research is aimed at optimizing the protocol for acclimatization of tissue culture pineapple plantlets.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; Experimental Research Design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The experiment was conducted at the Biotechnology Research Unit, Tissue Culture Laboratory, National Horticultural Research Institute, Jericho-Idi-Ishin, Ibadan. Feb 2021 – April 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The technique employed was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 10 samples per treatment in 6 replicates. 5 treatments were investigated in this research. Data analysis was done with the use of SAS statistical analysis software (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p>Fresh crowns of <em>Ananas </em><em>comosus </em>(pineapple) were extracted and were cultivated in test tubes containing full MS media. The plantlets were sub-cultured twice, after which they were taken into the hardening chamber. The plantlets were acclimatized in the Semi-Autotrophic Hydroponics substrate and other substrates – Topsoil(TS), Sawdust(SD), Sawdust + Topsoil (3:1), and Sawdust + Topsoil (1:3).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result shows that the mean difference in Plant Height and Root Length for SAH substrate was significant as against other substrates used in this study <em>(p&lt;0.05) </em>with SAH having the highest value of 3.50cm for plant height and 2.53cm for root length.&nbsp; A 100% survival rate was observed for the plantlets grown SAH media as compared to the ones acclimatized on Topsoil and Sawdust combinations which showed a 50% survival rate. There was no significant difference in the number of leaves among all the groups of substrates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, SAH media is a very effective media for the hardening and acclimatization of micro-propagated plantlets.</p> Y. O. Olagunju A. O. Aduloju P. E. Akin-Idowu C. O. Esuola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 61 67 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130757 Impact and Variability of Meteorological Parameters on Rice Crop at Siddharthnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30758 <p>The present study explores the impacts and variability of meteorological parameter on the rice yields at Siddharthnagar of Uttar Pradesh, India. This study that the maximum and minimum temperatures during the period 2011 to 2020 show increasing trends. Whereas the duration of sunlight increased in June and July. Whereas the rainfall data shows decreasing trends for the period August-September. Furthermore, this study suggests that there was a decrease in rainfall trends during the paddy growing period. A negative correlation was observed with rainfall, particularly during the duff stage, indicating that wetting during the flowering to maturity period may be decisive. This study suggests taking into account the variability of annual or seasonal temperatures and precipitation within the region. The warming trend and irregular precipitation over time may have a significant impact on paddy farming. As a result, plans must be developed to manage the impact of the current variability of meteorological parameters on the paddy yields in this district of Uttar Pradesh by developing appropriate alternatives for increasing paddy crop production.</p> Surya Prakash Singh S. R. Mishra S. N. Singh Pradeep Kumar O. P. Verma D. P. Singh Vineet Kumar V. S. Devadas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-09 2021-12-09 68 74 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130758 Impact of Endomycorrhization on the Nursery Growth of Seedlings of a Threatened Ivorian Forest Species Pterygota macrocarpa K. Schum (Malvaceae) https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30759 <p><strong>Aims: </strong><em>Pterygota macrocarpa</em>, a common species in the forests of Côte d'Ivoire, is threatened with extinction due to overexploitation. Protective measures for <em>P. macrocarpa</em> could consist in the integration of arbuscular mycorrhizae in the reforestation of this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizae inoculation on the resistance and development of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> plants.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The design is completely randomized and includes one (1) plant species (<em>Pterygota macrocarpa</em>), three (3) treatments (local inoculum 1, commercial inoculum 2 and non-inoculated control) and 20 seedlings per treatment.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The experimental study was set up at the border of the experimental forest of the Northern site of INP-HB (National Polytechnic Institute Houphouët-Boigny, Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire) from February to May 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thus, from seedlings collected in the arboriculture of the INP-HB of Yamoussokro, the effects of mycorrhization through treatments on the mineral nutrition and on the growth parameters of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> were evaluated during 120 days of culture in nursery.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mycorrhised plants survived 100% while the control plants had 90% survival rate. The mycorrhizal intensity of the roots was 19.21% for inoculum 1 and 10.40% for inoculum 2. The plants treated with inoculum 1 had the highest mineral content, especially phosphorus (0.3 ppm) and nitrogen (2.6%). The vegetative growth of inoculum 1 treated plants was more accelerated than that of the other two treatments. Local inoculum 1 was more effective than commercial inoculum 2.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The integration of local mycorrhizal inocula in the reforestation of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> seedlings could be a sustainable solution for the restoration of degraded forests.</p> Voko Bi Rosin Don Rodrigue Konan Adjoua Estelle Kouassi Kouassi Clément Kocoun Konan Dieudonné Konaté Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-10 2021-12-10 75 86 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130759 Development and Quality Evaluation of Date Seed Powder Incorporated Cookies https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30760 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To incorporate date seed powder in the preparation of cookies and to perform the quality evaluation of the cookies.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Experimental design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>College of Food Science and Technology, PJTS Agricultural University, Rudrur, from March 2021 to August 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The cookies was prepared by formulating trials. For test samples the refined wheat flour was replaced with date seed powder in different proportions. Sensory evaluation was performed to know the acceptability of the cookies. Quality evaluation was performed for the control sample and the most accepted cookies.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results of sensory evaluation showed that 12% date seed powder incorporated cookies was highly acceptable with a score of overall acceptability 8.3. Carbohydrates, protein, fat, fiber content of the standardized cookies was found to be 60.57%, 5.78%, 22%, 5.26% respectively. The physical parameters like diameter, thickness and spread ratio increased with supplementation of date seed powder.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Date seed powder rather discarding as waste; can be used to develop innovative products. Date seed powder can be used to develop products with functional and nutraceutical use.</p> CH. Sriharsha R. Swamy T. V. N. Padmavathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 87 93 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130760 Seed Germination of the Herbaceous Vine Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. (Tropaeolaceae): A Neglected Geophyte with High Agricultural Potential https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30761 <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the seed germination of <em>Tropaeolum pentaphyllum</em> Lam., an endangered geophyte native of southern Brazil with agriculture potential due its edible tubers. Two experiments were carried out in 2017: germination of <em>T. pentaphyllum</em> under natural conditions and under controlled conditions. In the experiments under natural and controlled conditions, the germination of 1,100 and 100 seeds was evaluated, respectively. In the experiment under controlled conditions, two treatments (natural light and dark) were evaluated and each treatment contained 50 seeds. In the natural conditions experiment, in 2018 (first year), of the 1,100 seeds, 5.6% germinated and 76.5% persisted in the soil; and in 2019 (second year), 5.3% of the seeds germinated and no seeds remained in the soil. In natural conditions experiment, 10.9% of seeds germinated over two years. In controlled conditions experiment, in 2018 the germination in dark was higher (48%) compared to natural light (18%); and in 2019, despite the absence of statistical differences, the dark showed a higher value of germination (12%) in relation to natural light (6%). Over two years, dark treatment showed higher germination (60%) compared to natural light (24%) and no seeds remained in the substrate. The production of tubers in plants obtained by seed germination was 98.4% and 100%, in natural and controlled conditions, respectively. The highest germination rates occurred under dark conditions indicating that the species is preferential negative photoblastic. In addition, this species forms a seed bank in the soil, in which the seeds remained for a maximum of two years. The seed germination can contribute to the genetic diversity of crops and the production of seed-tubers, decreasing the collection of tubers <em>in situ</em>, contributing to the conservation and agricultural use of <em>T. pentaphyllum</em>.</p> Juliana Marcia Rogalski Daniela da Silva Júlio Tagliari Balestrin Kaliandra Severina Mattei Angela Julia Dorn Tiago Lodi-Souza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 94 105 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130761 Effect of Some Storage Methods on the Quality of Maize Grown in the Ashanti Mampong Municipality of Ghana https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30762 <p>This study aims at finding an acceptable storage method for three varieties of Maize grown in the Ashanti Mampong Municipality of Ghana. Survey and standard laboratory protocols were carried out to gather the necessary data for the study. The background study revealed that 18%, 13%, 24%, 15%, 12%, 8% and 10% of farmers store their maize by heaping on the floor, storing in cribs, conventional jute sack, plastic drum, clay pot, triple-layer hermetic bag and polypropylene respectively. The findings also indicated that moisture loss was reduced in the plastic drum and triple-layer hermetic bag after the four months of storage. The proximate composition of the stored produce showed that maize preserved better in the triple layer hermetic bag. It is recommended that the triple-layer hermetic bag should be extensively used in storing maize as it has the ability to reduce moisture loss, and also preserving the nutritional and market value of the produce stored in it.</p> Osborn Addae Duah Michael Odenkey Quaye Albert Nyarko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 106 113 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130762 Enrichment of Ensilage Quality and Nutrients of Whole-Plant Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Based Silages https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30763 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aimed at enriching the ensilaged quality and nutrient contents of whole-plant water hyacinths (WWH) based silages in different recipes.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Twelve recipes with three replications each were assigned in a completely random design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Faculty of Science and Agricultural Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Lampang Campus, Thailand, between October 2018 and September 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Treatments were twelve recipes including: T1= light wilted WWH+ 1.96% salt,&nbsp; T2 = light wilted WWH + 4.15% molasses + 8.27% rice bran, T3 = light wilted&nbsp; WWH + 6.63% molasses + 15.86% rice bran, T4 = light wilted WWH +8.91% molasses + 22.83% rice bran, T5 = moderate wilted WWH + 1.59% Salt, T6 = moderate WWH + 11.17% molasses + 13.33% rice bran, T7 = moderate wilted WWH + 10.75 % molasses + 25.67% rice bran, T8 = moderate wilted WWH + 10.36% molasses + 37.11% rice bran, T9 = extremely wilted WWH + 1.16% salt, T10 = extremely wilted WWH + 5.10% rice bran, T11 = extremely wilted WWH + 4.30% molasses, T12 = extremely wilted WWH + 4.30% molasses + 5.14% rice bran. Each recipe was mixed into triplicates of a 30 kg high-density polyethylene plastic bag under anaerobic condition for 30 days.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results demonstrated that T6, T7, and T8 were quite superior in fermentation characteristics; T3, T4, T6, T7, and T8 were judged outstanding in physical assessment;</p> <p>T4, T6, T7, and T8 were more appropriate in terms of nutritive values.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This work demonstrated that WWH can be upgraded into high-quality silage by wilting, chopping into pieces, adding rice bran and molasses, and ensilaged for about 30 days. The finding from this study indicated that T6, T7, and T8 were fit all aspects and recommended as recipes for producing high-quality WWH-based silage for ruminants.</p> Watcharee Thepyothin Sirikhan Thartrak Suntorn Wittayakun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 114 122 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130763 Estimation of the Hydrodynamic Parameters of Soils Subjected to Water Scarcity: Application of BEST and Introduction of a Specific Methodology https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30764 <p>Propose a specific method (Junction Between Arya and Heitman and Haverkamp - JAHH), similar to BEST, to obtain the hydrodynamic parameters of soils in Pernambuco, Brazil. Sample: Department of Civil Engineering, Polytechnic School of Pernambuco – POLI, between March 2019 and February 2021. For this, BEST and JAHH were used to obtain the hydrodynamic characteristics of the collected materials, and the results of both methods were compared with simulations performed in Hydrus-1D. Sorptivity and <em>K<sub>s</sub></em>, acquired using both methods, presented differences reached 68.38% regarding <em>K<sub>s</sub></em>. The characteristic radius of the pores (λ<sub>m</sub>) and capillary length (λ<sub>c</sub>) obtained with BEST are not coherent, and this can be explained because during the evaluation of one sandy soil, λ<sub>m</sub> values were the highest and λ<sub>c</sub> were the lowest, when the opposite was expected. The use of JAHH to estimate soil parameters could generate more coherent estimates than BEST-slope, even though both of them have presented results of the same proportion, such as sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, for exemple. Therefore, the proposed method presented more pertinent results when compared to BEST regarding the studied soils.</p> Marco Aurélio Calixto Ribeiro de Holanda Diogo Botelho Correa de Oliveira Willames de Albuquerque Soares ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 123 135 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130764 Growth, Fruit Yield and Proximate Composition Responses of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L; Rodo Variety) to Potassium Fertilizer Application at Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30765 <p>Potassium (K) fertilizer application, as a component of the improved technologies necessary to maximize crop yield and quality, is often used to correct the plant, soil and environmental factors that limit K availability. The effects of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1 </sup>were studied on hot pepper (<em>Capsicum annuum </em>L; <em>Atarodo</em>variety) in 2014 and 2015 on the Teaching and Research Farm, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti Nigeria in a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replicates. Each K rate was mixed with 75 kg N and 25 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> and applied 2 weeks after transplanting 5-week old seedlings spaced 60 cm × 40 cm apart. The data of growth parameters were collected at 2 weeks after treatment (WAT) and fortnightly till 10 WAT, number and weight of ripe fruits and fruit proximate composition. The plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter increased with age and K rates to highest values at 10 WAT and 90 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup> in both years. The number of fruits, fruit and seed yield ha<sup>-1</sup>, fruit size, fruit length and breadth and pericarp thickness increased linearly from the control to the highest values at 90 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup>.The number of fruits and yield at 90 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup> were 1.253×10<sup>6</sup>, 14.24 t ha<sup>-1</sup>; and 3.73×10<sup>6</sup>, 14.94 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>in 2014 and 2015, respectively but the 60 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1 </sup>gave the highest agronomic efficiency. The slight increase in fruit moisture content would not predispose fruits to deterioration while the crude protein and fat, carbohydrate and ash contents, vitamin C and mineral nutrients increased significantly making K application necessary to balance the fertilizer protocol for optimum hot pepper production.</p> Emmanuel Olukunle Alabi Olufemi Julius Ayodele Aluko Mathew ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 136 145 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130765 Alternations in Biochemical Components in Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) Plants Infected with Chilli Leaf Curl Viral Disease https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30766 <p>Chilli (<em>Capsicum annuum </em>L.) is an important spice crop grown all over the world. Chilli leaf curl, a viral disease outbreak in almost every chilli grown area causing significant yield losses. An experiment was conducted to analyze the biochemical changes in infected and healthy plant of chilli. The chlorophyll a, b and total were highest in healthy leaves then infected leaves. Moreover, severely infected leaves have lower amounts of chlorophyll contents. Out of nine cultivars total phenol and tannin contents were found maximum in Gucchedar, POL-75 and Byddagi Kaddi in comparison to highly susceptible cultivars Musa Badi, Phuley Joyti and NPKT-2.</p> A. N. Chaubey R. S. Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 146 152 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130766 Analysis on Adoption of Blackgram Growers in Periyar vaigai Command Area of Madurai District https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30767 <p>The IAM Project will bring the policy and institutional development achieved under IAMWARM project to a new level and will serve as the key vehicle for implementing the Tamil Nadu Government agenda in further enhancing water and agriculture productivity in a sub basin framework. Madurai District of Tamil Nadu was purposively selected for this study because Tamil Nadu Irrigated Agriculture Modernization Project was conducted under Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. The foremost objective of the study was to assess the adoption level of respondents in study area. Majority of the TN-IAMP beneficiaries (81.70% had medium level of adoption followed by nearly less than one-sixth of the total beneficiaries (15.80%) possess low adoption and only 2.5% of the beneficiaries had high level of adoption rate in this study.</p> K. Ramakrishnan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 153 157 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130767 Validation of Genomic Selection Approach for Predicting Sheath Blight Resistance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.,) https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30768 <p>Rice sheath blight (ShB) is one of the most serious fungal diseases caused by <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>, instigating significant yield losses in many rice-growing regions of the world. Intensive studies indicated that resistance for sheath blight is controlled possibly by polygenes. Because of complex inheritance, it’s very difficult to exploit and tap all the genomic regions conferring resistance using classical approaches of QTL mapping, it’s very important to have a different strategy to harness such resistance mechanism. One promising approach that can potentially provide accurate predictions of the resistance phenotypes is genomic selection (GS). The research was undertaken with an objective to validate genomic selection approach for predicting sheath blight resistance involving 1545 Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from eleven crosses between resistant and susceptible parents (Jasmine 85XTN1, Jasmine 85XSwarnaSub1, Jasmine 85XII32B, Jasmine 85XIR54, TetepXTN1, TetepXSwarna Sub1, TetepXII32B, TetepXIR54, MTU 9992XTN1, MTU 9992XII32B and MTU 9992XIRBB4). Where, Jasmine 85, Tetep &amp; MTU 9992 were resistant parents and TN1, Swarna Sub1, II32B, IR54 &amp; IRBB4 were susceptible parents. During rainy season (2020) the F<sub>7</sub> RILs were screened for their reaction to sheath blight in two hot spot locations. The genotyping was done with Illumina platform having 6564 SNP markers. Bayesian B approach was used to train the statistical model for calculation of marker effects and GEBVs. The prediction accuracy of training set (data fit analysis) obtained was 0.70 and random cross validation with different approaches, the prediction accuracy ranged from 0.67 to 0.74. The results are lucrative, all in all, high prediction accuracies observed in this study suggest genomic selection as a very promising breeding strategy for predicting sheath blight resistance in Rice.</p> Mahantesh . K. Ganesamurthy Sayan Das R. Saraswathi C. Gopalakrishnan R. Gnanam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 158 167 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130768 Assessment of Nutritional Properties from Six Varieties of Onion (Allium cepa L., Alliaceae) Produced in Northern Côte d’Ivoire https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30769 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Onion is a common vegetable engaging significant nutritional interests and widely consumed over the world. In Côte d'Ivoire, 95% of the onion consumption is filled by imports despite the availability of suitable areas for its local production. The current study aimed to investigate nutritional features of onion varieties for fitting the agronomical trends in order to strengthen the onion cultivation in northern Côte d’Ivoire.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Six onion varieties produced for bulbs, namely ARES, BATI, CARA, DAMANI, KARIBOU, and SAFARI. Onion bulbs sampled, oven-dried, and then processed to powders for analysis. The main study consisted in analyzing the biochemical properties of the resulted onions powders.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Experimental farming from the plants experimenting location, and onion samples analyzed from Laboratory of Peleforo Gon Coulibaly University, Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire, between March 2020 and April 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Batches of 2 kg fresh bulbs collected per onion variety after harvest. Once at Lab, onion bulbs peeled, washed, cut into small dice-shaped pieces and dried into an oven at 80 °C for 24 h using stainless trays. Dried samples ground and kept for analyses regarding physicochemical traits (moisture, acidity, ash) and nutritive parameters (glucides, lipids, proteins, antioxidants).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The works showed higher contents in moisture (16.91%), ash (4.46%), and lipids (1.99%) from CARA variety with more significant acidity; while greatest amounts of total soluble carbohydrates (14.5%), tannins (1.02%), and proteins (13.6%) were recorded from BATI and more vitamin C in DAMANI (0.133%). However, SAFARI variety samples were more provided in reducing carbohydrates (1.04%) and total polyphenols (1.46%) as secondary metabolites; and the ARES variety revealed highest flavonoids contents (0.057%). In addition, ARES, CARA, and KARIBOU varieties displayed great dietary fibers amounts compared to BATI, KARIBOU, and SAFARI.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The particular nutritional traits of the studied onion varieties could be confronted with their agronomical yield and consumption trends for supporting sustainable production of onion in Côte d’Ivoire.</p> Konan N’guessan Ysidor Diarrassouba Nafan Koffi Eric-Blanchard Zadjéhi Yao Saraka Didier Martial Soro Koulotioloma Cisse Mohamed Biego Godi Henri Marius ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 168 179 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130769 Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Variety on Physiological Indices and Nutrient Composition of Livingstone Potato (Plectranthus esculentus N.E.Br.) in Gombe, Northern Guinea Savannah, Nigeria https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30770 <p><em>Plectranthus esculentus</em> N.E.Br. locally known as “rizga” is an important indigenous tuber crop in Nigeria which is currently endangered. One major factor that causes disappearance of this species, is the lower agronomic recommendations developed for growers and lack of information about nutrient contents leading to loss of interest in its cultivation. A field experiment was therefore conducted during the 2016 and 2017 rainy seasons to determine the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and variety on physiological indices as an attempt to conserve and evaluate the potential of the crop in food security, source of income and its adaptation in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Treatments consisted four levels of nitrogen and phosphorus (­0<sub>,</sub> 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha), respectively and two varieties (vat Riyom and vat Loang’at). Results from analysis of variance showed that nitrogen and phosphorus applied at 90 kg/ha significantly produced higher physiological indices in both years. Beyond this rate, there was a decline in physiological indices resulting in decrease in starch content and dry matter accumulation. Harvest index indicated a positive relationship between the proportion of the biological yield and nutrient levels. Although, varietal difference was not significant on harvest index. This is an indication that HI is purely a genetic trait as affected by environmental factors. It was therefore concluded that, for high yield of livingstone potato, soils should be treated with a moderate application rate of 90 kg/ha nitrogen and phosphorus for enhanced physiological indices which are measures of growth and productivity per unit area of land in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria.</p> E. D. Elemi P. O. Ukatu G. F. Uwak L. J. Agah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 180 188 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130770 Impact of Storage Period on Fertility and Mortality in Chabro Breeds of Poultry https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30771 <p>An investigation was conducted to study the effect of storage period on fertility and hatchability in large, medium and small sized eggs of Chabro breed. The study was conducted at poultry farm of SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner. For the present study, a total of 297 eggs were collected for this study. These eggs were grouped into three egg size categories i.e. Small (38-44 g), medium (45-52 g) and large (53-59 g). To study the impact of incubation period, eggs were stored at 21 ̊C temperature for three different time periods (fresh, 3 day and 6 day). It was observed that egg fertility was increased on 3<sup>rd</sup> day and decreased on 6<sup>th</sup> day as compared to 0 day. For small egg class, egg fertility was 95.55, 96.02 and 92.13% respectively, on 0, 3 and 6 day of storage. Similarly, for medium-sized egg class, fertility was 95.17, 95.64 and 90.28% and for large sized egg class, it was 91.11, 92.15 and 87.41% respectively, on 0, 3 and 6 day of storage. Embryonic mortality increased with increase in storage duration. For small egg class, egg mortality was 20.95, 17.56 and 24.87% respectively, on 0, 3 and 6 day of storage. Similarly, for medium-sized eggs class, mortality was 10.15, 8.45 and 12.63% and for large sized egg class, it was 29.30, 20.14 and 33.41% respectively, on 0, 3 and 6 day of storage. The egg fertility and mortality are affected by the storage period. For best hatchability, egg storage should not exceed 3 days.</p> Poonam Yadav Mahesh Datt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-18 2021-12-18 189 193 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130771 Constraints Encountered by Wheat Producers in Adoption of Wheat Production Technology in Faizabad District of Uttar Pradesh, India https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30772 <p>Wheat is a major staple food crop; it is one of the major sources of protein in the least developed countries and middle-income countries and in terms of caloric and dietary intake. The present study was conducted to identify the constraints in the adoption of wheat production technology in the Masaudha and Sohawal community developments blocks of Faizabad district. Data were collected with the help of personal interview methods and a pre-trial interview schedule. One hundred and twenty respondents were selected from twelve villages that were selected at random. Findings showed that 52.5% of the wheat-growers were of middle age (36–50 years) and 53.33% were literate, while 22.5% of the respondents had received education up to the primary level. Agriculture was the main occupation of most of the respondents and the income level of the respondents was also low, while farmers met the respondents occasionally to increase their income and to learn new skills. So the results showed that the constraints were responsible for the low adoption of wheat production techniques, however, some of them were the most significant such as lack of seed technology, lack of knowledge about seed treatment, lack of knowledge about soil analysis technology, plant protection and Lack of knowledge about irrigation technology Lack of knowledge about advanced types of equipment, etc. This trend means that more educational effort needs to be made by the extension agency by way of improving knowledge, adopting new wheat farming techniques, and accelerating the pace of production.</p> Alimul Islam Naushad Alam Avdhesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 194 199 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130772 Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Rhizosphere Soil Samples from Basmati and Non-basmati Rice Growing Areas of Jammu Region, Jammu and Kashmir, India https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30773 <p>In the current study, rhizosphere soil samples were collected from six different locations of rice fields in Jammu, Kathua and Samba districts of Jammu region of UT of Jammu and Kashmir, The soil samples were processed and analysed from their physicochemical characteristics. Soil samples were collected from each sampling site and analysed for Organic Carbon (OC), soil pH, Salinity,&nbsp; Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium, along with this the micronutrient profiling of the samples was also conducted following the standard protocols. The overall mean results for soil pH level, OC, N,P, and K content of the majority of rice fields in the research locations were favourable for rice production; nevertheless, the ideal pH and NPK levels should be evaluated on a regular basis to ensure the best potential rice harvests.</p> Tanveer Kour Raina Romesh Kumar Salgotra Tuhina Dey Brajeshwar Singh Sushil Sharma Prerna Johar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 200 209 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130773 Cotton Weed Management Systems in Conventional and Conservation Tillage https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30774 <p>Weed management trials were established near Lubbock, TX in 2017 and 2018 to compare systems in both conventional and conservation tillage. Four herbicide systems were included for both the conventional and conservation tillage. Conventional tillage treatments included trifluralin preplant incorporated (PPI) followed by (fb) no preemergence (PRE) fb dicamba + glyphosate + acetochlor early postemergence (EPOST) fb dicamba + glyphosate midpostemergence (MPOST), trifluralin PPI fb prometryn PRE fb dicamba + glyphosate EPOST fb dicamba + glyphosate + acetochlor MPOST, no PPI fb prometryn PRE fb dicamba + glyphosate EPOST fb dicamba + glyphosate + acetochlor MPOST, trifluralin PPI fb prometryn PRE fb glyphosate EPOST fb glyphosate + acetochlor MPOST. Conservation tillage treatments included dicamba + glyphosate early preplant (EPP) fb paraquat + prometryn PRE fb dicamba + glyphosate EPOST fb dicamba + glyphosate MPOST, dicamba + glyphosate + flumioxazin EPP fb paraquat + prometryn PRE fb dicamba + glyphosate EPOST fb dicamba + glyphosate MPOST, glyphosate EPP fb dicamba + prometryn fb dicamba + glyphosate EPOST fb dicamba + glyphosate MPOST, no EPP fb dicamba + prometryn fb dicamba + glyphosate EPOST fb dicamba + glyphosate MPOST. Visual weed control for Russian thistle, kochia, and Palmer amaranth was recorded at cotton planting and 14 days after planting. Palmer amaranth control was recorded at 14 and 28 days after the EPOST and MPOST treatments. Effective season-long control of Palmer amaranth (&gt;98%) was achieved using various dicamba-based herbicide systems in both conventional and conservation tillage. Glyphosate-based herbicide systems controlled Palmer amaranth &lt;53% in 2017 and &lt;84% in 2018 due to the number of glyphosate-resistant weeds present. All dicamba treatments controlled Palmer amaranth &gt;83% in 2017 and &gt;98% in 2018.</p> C. D. R. White J. W. Keeling ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 210 218 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130774 Hedonic Sensory Quality of Maize Grains Conserved by A Triple Bagging and Biopesticides System (Leaves of Lippia multiflora Moldenke and Hyptis suaveolens Poit) https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30775 <p>In Côte d'Ivoire, inefficient storage Practices which can be dangerous to consumers' safety and to the environment are hampering the widespread availability of cereals, especially maize. Thus, a triple bagged system with or without plant biopesticides (Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens leaves) was used in this study to determine its effectiveness in preserving the hedonic sensory qualities of the grains for a period of 18 months under a 3-factor central composite design (CCD). The first CCD factor consisted of 6 observation periods: 0; 1; 4.5; 9.5; 14.5 and 18 months. The second factor was the type of treatment, which included a control lot with a polypropylene bag (NT) and 9 experimental lots, one of which was triple bagged without biopesticides (MGT1 and the other eight (8) lots containing varying proportions and/or combinations of biopesticides (MGT2 to MGT9). Finally, the third factor concerned the combination of the two biopesticides with the percentage (%) of <em>Lippia multiflora</em> as reference. Treated and stored maize kernels were periodically removed and processed into porridge for sensory analysis using a 9-point hedonic scale. The sensory parameters studied were color, taste, aroma, smell, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. The results showed that storage of maize grains in a triple bagging and biopesticide system for up to 18 months did not affect the hedonic sensory attributes studied. The porridges made from these grains were therefore judged pleasant by the panelists throughout the storage period. On the other hand, the porridges produced from grains stored in a polypropylene bag (NT) were considered unpalatable by the panelists after only 4.5 months of storage with respect to these sensory parameters evaluated. The results of the PCA and CAH analysis showed that the incorporation of at a minimum of 1.01% biopesticides (<em>Lippia multiflora </em>and<em> Hyptis suaveolens</em> leaves) in the triple bagging systems made the conservation better and maintained the organoleptic properties of the maize grains throughout the 18-month period.</p> N’Dri Kouakou Félix Sidibe Daouda Konan Ysidor Adama Coulibaly Konan K. Constant Henri Marius G. Biego ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 219 230 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130775 Maturity Classifications Influence the Phenological Intervals of Different Maize Varieties https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30776 <p>This field trial compared the growth stages of early, intermediate and late varieties of maize and evaluated the effect of maturity group on their phenological intervals. Fifteen maize varieties belonging to three different maturity groups were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on the days to leaf expansion from the early seedling stages to flowering. The results showed that maturity group effect was significant for all phenological intervals starting from the third leaf stage. Maturity group had the highest influence on the phenological intervals of the varieties during the period of seedling establishment at the fifth leaf stage. The contribution of maturity group to the total observed variability increased from seedling establishment to the late vegetative stages and peaked at the flowering stages. Varietal differences have a minimal contribution in ranking maturity in maize. In summary, maturity differences in maize varieties are initiated early, but their time-course effects on phenological intervals are more pronounced in the late vegetative and flowering stages.</p> R. Y. Ilesanmi Omolara Abayomi F. E. Awosanmi Sola Ajayi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 231 239 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i1130776