Journal of Experimental Agriculture International https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Experimental Agriculture International (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-0591)</strong>&nbsp;is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of agriculture and biology. The journal publishes original scientific papers, short communications, review articles and case studies. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Experimental Agriculture International 2457-0591 Understanding Seed Dormancy and Germination https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30730 <p>Seeds are highly important part of living things, without which life would not exist. All of our daily necessities are totally dependent on seed and seed stock, like food and fruits, so also is many of the natural resources that we use as consumers such as, timber, cotton, paper, essential\edible oils, all which started their live as seeds. Basically, a seed consists of a tiny underdeveloped plant, the embryo, which is enclosed by a covering called the seed coat. Germination of seed occurs when the embryo grows into a functioning plant. It involves the rejuvenation of the metabolic pathways that lead to growth and the emergence of the radicle (root) and plumule (shoot). For germination to occur, three basic factors must exist, the seed must be viable, dormancy must be controlled and the proper environmental conditions for germination must be available. Dormancy simply means the inability of seeds to germinate even when the necessary environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, oxygen, and light) are favorable for germination. Dormancy is a principal factor restricting the production of crops. Several physical and chemical pretreatments can be applied to the organic material (seeds) to control dormancy. This review discusses the conditions necessary for germination and the fundamental factors necessary for breaking dormancy.</p> T. O. Ibrahim A. O. Ogunsiji O. A. Oni B. F. Awotedu O. I. Bolanle-Ojo B. A. Ajani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-09 2021-10-09 1 9 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i930730 Weed Management and Economics in Dicamba-Tolerant Cotton https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30731 <p>Increasing populations of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth [<em>Amaranthus palmeri</em> (S.) Wats.] have increased weed management costs for Texas High Plains cotton [<em>Gossypium hirsutum</em> (L.)] producers. The introduction of dicamba-tolerant cotton varieties and registration of dicamba formulations for postemergence use, combined with residual herbicides, can effectively control Palmer amaranth. Field studies were conducted in 2018 and 2019 near Lubbock, TX, USA to evaluate Palmer amaranth control and economics of weed management in dicamba-, glufosinate-, glyphosate-, and conventional cotton systems. The most consistent season-long Palmer amaranth control was achieved with the dicamba-tolerant system in both years. In 2018, greatest lint yields were achieved with dicamba-tolerant system when compared to the conventional and glufosinate-tolerant systems. In 2018, greatest gross margin above weed management costs were achieved with the dicamba-tolerant and glyphosate-tolerant systems.&nbsp; Greatest lint yield was achieved with the dicamba-tolerant and conventional systems in 2019 and greatest gross margins were achieved with the dicamba-tolerant system. Total variable costs were similar across all systems, with greater seed/technology and herbicide costs in dicamba-tolerant and glufosinate-tolerant systems, compared to higher tillage and hand hoeing costs in glyphosate-tolerant and conventional systems.</p> B. M. Delong C. D. R. White J. W. Keeling P. A. Dotray ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 10 17 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i930731 Influence of Plant Growth Regulators and Micronutrients on Growth, Yield and Quality of Sorghum under Temperate Conditions https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30732 <p>A field experiment was conducted at Dry land Agricultural Research Station, Rangreth, Srinagar, SKUAST-K in <em>Kharif</em> 2020 to study the effect of Plant Growth Regulators and micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of sorghum. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of Plant Growth Regulators and micronutrients on herbage yield and quality. The treatments included; T<sub>1</sub>: Tricontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T<sub>2</sub>: Salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T<sub>3</sub>: 5 kg Zn/ha soil application, T<sub>4</sub>: 2 kg B/ha soil application, T<sub>5</sub>: 5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha soil application, T<sub>6</sub>: 5 kg Zn/ha (soil application ) + Triacontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T<sub>7</sub>: 5 kg Zn/ha (soil application) + salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T<sub>8</sub>: 2 kg B/ha (soil application) + Triacontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T<sub>9</sub>: 2 kg B/ha (soil application )+ salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T<sub>10: </sub>5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha (soil application) + Triacontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray), T<sub>11: </sub>5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha (soil application) + salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray) and T<sub>12: </sub>Water spray at the time of PGR application. Zn and B were applied at the time of sowing in the soil. The crop was raised with recommended package of practices. In treatments, where zinc was not a treatment, an amount of sulphur through gypsum equivalent to sulphate supplied with 5 kg ZnSO<sub>4</sub> was applied to compensate. The crop was sown in 30.0 cm apart lines. The trial was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results indicated that all the treatments improved the green fodder yield over control. Among different treatments, T<sub>10: </sub>5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha soil application + Triacontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS foliar spray and T<sub>11: </sub>5 kg Zn + 2 kg B/ha soil application + salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS foliar spray produced maximum GFY (493.6 and 490.5q/ha) on locational mean basis. It was significantly superior to other treatments. These treatments improved the green fodder yields by 35.0 % and 34.2 %, respectively, over control (spray of water). In terms of dry matter, similar trend was noted and the improvement with T<strong><sub>10</sub></strong> and T<strong><sub>11</sub></strong> was to the tune of 36.8 % and 41.0 % over control. Tricontanol 10 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray) (T1) improved the green fodder yield and dry fodder yield by 13.6% and 14.3 % respectively over T<strong><sub>12</sub></strong>Water spray at the time of Plant Growth Regulator application. Similarly spray of T<sub>2</sub>: Salicylic acid 100 ppm at 30 DAS (foliar spray) improved the green fodder yield and dry fodder yield by 14.4% and 15.4% respectively over T<strong><sub>12</sub></strong>Water spray at the time of Plant Growth Regulator application. Similar trend was observed with respect to quality parameters (crude protein content and crude protein yield) of sorghum.</p> Zahida Rashid Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar B. Sabiya N. Sabina N. S. Khuroo M. Shabeena A. Rakshanda Raies A. Bhat Faisul-Ur- Rasool H. Shafeeq Z. A. Dar Seerat Jan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-11 2021-10-11 18 23 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i930732 Growth Performance and Gut Morphological Responses of Broiler Chickens to Fermented Diets https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30733 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Growth performance and gut morphological response of broiler chickens fed moist fermented diets with the inclusion of probiotics or/and organic acids were evaluated in a 56 day feeding trial.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Poultry unit of the Department of Agricultural Education, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria between February 2018 and April 2018</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Three hundred one-day old unsexed Abor Acre broilers were used for this study. They were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 10 birds each. The experimental treatments were: Diet 1: Dry Unfermented Feed (DUF) - Probiotics (Pr) – Organic acids (Or), Diet 2: Moist Fermented Feed (MFF) – Pr – Or, Diet 3: MFF + Pr, Diet 4: MFF + Or, Diet 5: MFF + Pr + Or. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The feed conversion ratio of broiler starters fed diet 5 (1.96) was significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;.0001) better relative to those of birds fed other diets (2.27, 2.21, 2.14 and 2.13 respectively), while birds in treatment 1 (2.27) had significantly (<em>P</em>&lt;.0001) poor feed conversion ratio. There were no significant (<em>P</em>&gt;.05) differences in the feed conversion ratio of broiler finishers fed MFF with or without feed additives (2.68, 2.64, 2.55 and 2.55). However, the value of feed conversion ratio of birds fed DUF (3.04) was significantly (<em>P</em>=.05) the highest. The duodenal villus height to crypt depth ratio of broiler starters fed MFF+ Pr + Or (7.11) was significantly (<em>P</em>=.05) higher than those of birds fed other diets (2.70, 3.35, 3.98, 4.73 respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Although, feed fermentation enhanced gut morphological parameters which correlates improved growth performance of broiler chickens. The inclusion of probiotics (1g/kg) and organic acids (1g/kg) in the fermentation process further improved the growth indicators of broiler chickens used in this study.</p> O. A. Osinowo C. C. Ogbonna A. M. Omoare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-12 2021-10-12 24 32 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i930733 Sanity and Germination of Treated with Clove Extract Jurema-Preta and Faveleira Seeds https://journaljeai.com/index.php/JEAI/article/view/30734 <p>The <em>Mimosa tenuiflora</em> (jurema-preta) and <em>Cnidoscolus quercifolius</em> (faveleira) are quite common species in the Caatinga biome, being used from forage production to energy generation and in the recovery of degraded areas for reforestation purposes, among other uses. Considering the need and importance of studies related to forest seeds health, especially native seeds and taking into account the scarcity of studies in the literature regarding the association of pathogens to the seeds of the species studied, this work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the hydroalcoholic extract of clove on germination and incidence of fungi associated with seeds of jurema-preta and faveleira. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Forest Pathology, Center of Health and Rural Technology, Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, Brasil. For the germination test we performed the dormancy breaking of seeds that were then treated with clove plant extract, and as substrate, washed and sterilized sand was used. Germination percentage and Twinning speed index (SVI) were evaluated. The sanity test was performed using the filter paper method "Blotter Test" for the development of microorganisms. The treatments consisted of: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of clove extract, with 4 repetitions of 25 seeds. The design used was entirely randomized and the means were compared using Tukey's test at 5% probability. The clove extract, in higher concentrations, provided an increase in germination and SVI of the species. It was identified in the seeds of jurema-preta, the fungi <em>Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus glaucous, Rhizopus </em>sp, the genus <em>Phoma </em>sp. In the seeds of <em>C. quercifolius</em> the microflorea was composed by fungi <em>Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus glaucous, Rhizopus </em>sp<em>, Aspergillus alutaceous </em>and<em> Aspergillus candidus</em>.</p> Gilvanete Silva Henrique Gilvan José Campelo dos Santos Jaltiery Bezerra de Souza Mellina Nicácio Luz Maria Alaine Cunha Lima Isadora Nayara Bandeira de Moura Jailson Medeiros Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-16 2021-10-16 33 42 10.9734/jeai/2021/v43i930734