Journal of Experimental Agriculture International <p><strong>Journal of Experimental Agriculture International (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-0591)</strong> is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of agriculture and biology. The journal publishes original scientific papers, short communications, review articles and case studies. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p>This is an open-access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p>Subject matters include all areas of agricultural and biological science viz., agronomy, agricultural chemistry, entomology, plant pathology, agricultural genomics, biology, chemistry, earth science, genetics &amp; plant breeding, stored products research, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation and drainage, plant physiology, soil classification, soil fertility, soil conservation, insect and pest control, animal husbandry, aquaculture, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, agroecology, biotechnology, organic agriculture, biodynamic agriculture, agribusiness and other allied areas.</p> <p>Every issue will consist of a minimum of 5 papers. Each issue will be running, and all officially accepted manuscripts will be immediately published online. The state-of-the-art running issue concept gives authors the benefit of 'Zero Waiting Time' for the officially accepted manuscripts to be published. This journal is an international journal and its scope is not confined by the boundary of any country or region.</p> en-US (Journal of Experimental Agriculture International) (Journal of Experimental Agriculture International) Fri, 11 Nov 2022 07:47:04 +0000 OJS 60 Proximate and Detergent Fiber Fractions of de-Oiled African Olive (Canarium schweinfurthii Engl.) Residue: A Potential Animal Feedstuff <p>Proximate and detergent fiber composition of de-oiled African olive (<em>Canarium schweinfurthii</em>) residue were assessed using standard laboratory analytical procedures. Proximate composition showed 17.58 ± 0.21% crude protein, 4.13 ± 0.06% crude fat, 19.99 ± 0.89% crude fiber, 8.11 ± 0.33% ash and 50.20 ± 1.19% soluble carbohydrate. Detergent fiber components were 54.74±0.0745% NDF, 38.35 ± 0.59% ADF, 14.37 ± 0.68% ADL, 23.98 ± 0.10% cellulose and 16.40 ± 0.13% hemicellulose. Quantitative compositions of proximate and detergent fiber fractions were characteristic of roughage. De-oiled African olive pulp residue is relatively fair in protein and a good source of carbohydrate and digestible fiber for animal nutrition.</p> S. A. Ashom, I. Ajiji ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 11 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Potential Secondary Metabolites of Streptomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. in Suppressing the Percentage of Spodoptera litura Attacks on Corn Plants <p><em>Spodoptera litura</em> F. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) is one of the main pests on corn which is polyphagous and can cause crop failure due to damage to the leaves of the plant. Secondary metabolite compounds produced by microorganisms have many roles and functions, namely as compounds to protect plants from pest attacks. <em>Streptomyces</em> sp. and <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. are biological control agent which have the potential to produce chitinase enzymes capable of degrading the cell walls of larval and pupal stages. This study aims to determine the potential of secondary metabolites of <em>Streptomyces</em> sp. and <em>Trichoderma </em>sp. on various production media on the percentage of <em>S. litura</em> larval attack on corn plants. The study was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design with the first factor being the types and combination of biological control agents used, namely <em>Streptomyces</em> sp. and <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. While the second factor is the type of propagation media used <em>i.e </em>glucose nitrate (GN) and potato dextrose agar (PDA). The results showed that the combination of <em>Streptomyces</em> sp. and <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. on PDA production media with a concentration ratio of 5:1 can increase the potential of secondary metabolites in suppressing the percentage of <em>S. litura</em> larval attack on corn plants by up to 10%.</p> Penta Suryaminarsih, Ika Nurfitriana, Tri Mujoko, Noni Rahmadhini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Castor Seed Oil: A Promising Biomitecide for Sustainable Management of the Red Coffee Mite (Oligonychus ilicis) (McGregor, 1917) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) <p>The coffee red mite [<em>Oligonychus ilicis</em> (McGregor, 1917)] (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) is one of the main causes of conilon coffee (<em>Coffea canephora</em> Pierre &amp; Froehn) crop damage due to its phytophagous habit. Nowadays, environment and human harmful synthetic pesticides are used to control this pest. In this context, plant-derived bioactive compounds have been studied as a sustainable alternative for the pest mite management in crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the castor (<em>Ricinus communis</em>) seed oil action on eggs, larvae, nymph (protonymph and deutonymph) and adults of <em>O. ilicis</em>. Coffee leaf discs (4 cm in diameter) containing 12 individuals of <em>O. ilicis</em> were sprayed with castor seed oil at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0% (v/v) using airbrush. The ovicidal and mortality activity of this extract were evaluated against <em>O. ilicis</em>. The effective concentration of castor oil to cause 50% inhibition of <em>O. ilicis</em> larvae hatching (LC 50) was 1.26% (v/v). <em>Oligonychus ilicis</em> treated with this oil at a concentration of 3.0% presented a larvae hatching percentage of 29.3%, lower than that obtained for the control treatment (79.1%). Castor seed oil 3.0% (v/v) was highly toxic to nymphs and adults of <em>O. ilicis</em> with mortality of 96 and 88%, respectively. Castor seed oil was effective for larvae hatching inhibition and nymphs and adults mortality of <em>O. ilicis</em>, being promising for the coffee red mite sustainable biocontrol.</p> Thiago Rodrigues Dutra, Claudiane Martins da Rocha, Anderson Mathias Holtz, Tatiane Pereira Cofler, Ronilda Lana Aguiar, José Romário de Carvalho, Ana Beatriz Mamedes Piffer, Amanda Gonçalves Alves, Matheus de Paula Gomes, Irany Rodrigues Pretty, Patrícia Soares Furno Fontes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 19 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Diallel Analysis for Yield and Quality Characteristics in Melon <p><strong>Aims</strong><strong>: </strong>To estimate the effects of general and specific combinatorial fitness in parents and progeny on yield and fruit quality related traits of melon.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>A completely randomized block design with three replications was used to estimate the analysis of variance and the effects of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA). The genetic analysis was carried out based on the Griffing Method II dialelic design (1956) with fixed effects model. Tukey <em>P</em>=.05 mean comparison analysis.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The research was conducted in two stages. In stage 1, seed production of the parents and crosses was carried out at the Physiotechnical Greenhouse of the of the Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, Coahuila. Mexico, between April and July 2021. In stage 2, the evaluation of the parents and progeny was carried out between August and November 2021 in the agricultural field "La Jaroza", Paila, Coahuila. México.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> In the present study, seven melon parents were analyzed. The parents were crossed in all possible combinations, without reciprocal crosses, resulting in 21 progenies, a total of 28 genotypes evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results showed significant differences between genotypes, general and specific combining ability effects (GCA and SCA) for almost all variables, except fruit number. The parent "(E x L)" showed the best yield and GCA effects, and participated in most of the outstanding crosses in yield, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, flesh thickness, seed cavity and soluble solids. The "N x (E x L)" progeny excelled in yield and average fruit weight in SCA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The parent "(E x L)" showed the best yield and GCA effects and participated in most of the outstanding crosses in yield, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, flesh thickness, seed cavity and soluble solids. The progeny "N x (E x L)" excelled in yield in SCA.</p> Francisco Alfonso Gordillo Melgoza, Fernando Borrego Escalante, Alejandro Javier Lozano del Río, Alfonso López Benítez, Adalberto Benavides Mendoza, Norma Angélica Ruiz Torres, Rosendo Hernández Martínez, Cristina Patricia Aguilar Aranda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 23 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Nucleating Techniques in Forest Restoration of a Degraded Area in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest, Brazil <p>The nucleator techniques have specific and very particular functions, helping the reoccupation of some animals in the area, besides the natural succession. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the nucleator techniques of artificial perches and branch windrowing for the establishment of forest restoration in a seasonally dry tropical forest, Brazil. The research was conducted at Experimental Farm Cachoeira de São Porfírio, municipality of Santa Luzia, Paraíba, Brazil, in the period from August 2017 to July 2018. Two nucleator techniques were used, the artificial perches and branch windrowing. For both, the randomized block design was employed, with five treatments composed of the spacing between the structures that composed the respective techniques (5x5m; 10x10m; 15x15m; 20x20m and control treatment), in four repetitions. For the artificial perches the number of seeds and excreta were evaluated, and for the branched perches the height of the branches and their decomposition over time was evaluated. in addition, the water content and temperature of the soil in the experimental area were also analyzed. The artificial perches provided insertion of seeds distributed in three botanical families and excreta to the degraded area, thus incorporating organic matter and enriching the seed bank of the experimental site. The largest site. The largest number of excreta was obtained on perches with greater distance between them, proving that the spacing of 15x15m is the most suitable. The volumes of branches were altered throughout the experimental period, with a faster decomposition of the branches in the control treatment compared to the other treatments, and their cover provided lower temperatures compared to soil exposed to full sun. Both techniques have high potential for forest restoration in degraded areas in seasonally dry tropical forests.</p> Jailson Medeiros Silva, Antônio Adriano da Costa, Sávio Maciel da Silva Sousa, Arliston Pereira Leite, Erika Rayra Lima Nonato, Juliana Araújo Leite, Gilvanete da Silva Henrique, Maria Alinny Cruz da Silva, Jacob Silva Souto ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Performance of Farmers’ Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties for Yield and Its Attributing Traits under Organic Cultivation <p><strong>Background:</strong> The local cultivars and farmers’ plant varieties have good yield potential under a minimal input system. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out&nbsp;to assess the performance of the farmers’ wheat varieties in Gandhinagar, Gujarat condition under organic cultivation during November-March (winter season) 2015-16 and 2016-17.</p> <p><strong>Study Design and Methodology:</strong> The field experiments were constituted in Randomized Complete Block Design having three replications of fifteen treatments comprising twelve farmers’ varieties and three checks. The observations on yield and its attributing traits were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The pooled data analyzed over both years showed that the variety Mohit Gold was found significantly superior in terms of spike length (15.33 cm) and the number of spikelets per spike (22.97) among all the tests and checks during both years. Whereas, the significantly longest awn length was found in the Rajyog variety (14.48 cm). The number of grains per spike was reported superior in RK-7 (68.39) with at par RK-2 (64.18). However, the number of spikes per square meter (499.38) was recorded as significantly superior in HZG 30 which also reported a higher grain yielder per hectare with the next-best leaf length to superior check Bansi and at 94.05 cm plant height found at par to Mohit Gold (96.65 cm) and Rajyog (95.71 cm). Henceforth, HZG 30 can be a suitable option for wheat growers which might produce good biomass as well.</p> <p>Thus, it is concluded with the recommendation to conduct more such trials in different wheat growing areas to generate reliable production data to identify potential cultivars for recent breeding programs.</p> Hardev Choudhary, Parthkumar P. Dave, Noushad Parvez, Prakash Singh Raghuvanshi, Bajarang Lal, Satveer Singh, Rajkumar Rathore, Ranjit Kumar Singh, Rudrappa Zulapi, Agyaram Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Comprehensive Strategy for Popularization of the Documented Farmer Innovations and Re-Inventions <p>Farmer innovations and re-inventions is a subject that is increasingly making people sit up and think. At the very least it underpins a refreshing new approach to indigenous environmental knowledge that goes further than just passive admiration. At the most it is a potentially important new direction for research and extension wherever else the conventional approaches have failed to deliver. To highlight the value of this rich resource and to develop mechanisms for local innovations and re-inventions to find their way into the formal research and development system, documentation of farmer innovations and re-inventions is necessary to give the real picture of its wealth. Scientific enquiry into the documented practices would make it to a status of formal knowledge base and studying extent of adoption of these practices by the farmers will give the real picture of farmers innovations and re-inventions. Finding out the various constraints and analysis of the innovation development process will fetch a base to develop a comprehensive strategy which can be utilized by scientists, extentionists and user system. In this study 216 farmer innovations and re-inventions were identified in different farming situations of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states through informal interview with innovative farmers who were identified for the purpose of giving information on farmer innovations and re-inventions in the selected 3 districts and also from non sample area through secondary sources. Based on the various constraints faced and suggestion given by the innovative farmers a comprehensive strategy was developed which includes identification of farmer innovators, recognition of farmer innovators, documentation of farmer innovations and re-inventions, testing of farmer innovations and re-inventions for scientific rationality and validity, commercialisation of the innovations and re-inventions, networking of farmer innovators, providing farmer innovation support fund, monitoring and evaluation of the farmer innovator network groups, farmer innovator to farmer innovator cross visits and popularisation of farmer innovations and re-inventions. Strategy suggested in the study will help different agencies in promotion of farmer innovations and re-inventions and gives a brief comprehension and hence, it can be effectively utilised in promotion of these technologies through different agencies.</p> Shireesha Devarakonda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 25 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 In-vitro Acaricidal Study of Calotropis Gigantea Methanolic Extracts against (Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus) Ticks in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India <p>The present research was conducted to find out&nbsp; acaricidal efficacy of methanolic extracts of <em>Calotropis gigantea</em> against <em>Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus</em> ticks in Udaipur (Rajasthan). Larval packet Test (LPT) and Adult Immersion Test (AIT) were used to evaluate acaricidal efficacy. A total of four concentrations of the <em>Calotropis gigantea</em> extract (12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100%) were used along with one control group with twice replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. The Highest efficacy in both in-vitro tests (AIT and LPT) was recorded in 100% methanolic extracts of <em>Calotropis gigantea</em>. The <em>Calotropis gigantea</em> methanolic extracts displayed the highest IO% at 100% concentration, which was determined to be 67.46% in AIT. The methanolic extracts at 100% concentration had a minimum reproductive index of 0.16. During the study, it was clear that AIT had a lower reproductive index and a higher percent oviposition inhibition. Calotropis gigantea methanolic extracts in LPT demonstrated the highest efficacy at 100% concentration, which was of 64%. The Larval mortality increased trend with increasing concentrations of plant extracts.</p> Anuj Dixit, Hakim Manzer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 26 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Burkina Rock Phosphate Fertilization Increases Nodulation and Yield of Cowpea under Zaï Cultivation in Sahelian Agro-ecosystem of Burkina Faso <p>Cowpea occupies a considerable place in the nutritional and economic balance of the rural population of Burkina Faso. However, its cultivation is marked by yield instability linked to soil depletion of nutrients, especially N and P, and irregular rains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilization with the rock phosphate named BurkinaP, on the spatial and temporal variability of cowpea nodulation and yield. A multilocation test was conducted in 12 and 16 farmers’fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively, in 3 villages of 3 provinces of the northern region of Burkina Faso. Two treatments were compared: zaï without (ZS) and zaï with BurkinaP (ZP). Overall, dry weights of nodules and shoots at flowering stage, and grain at harvest, were significantly increased by BurkinaP. It is concluded that in soils where low availability of P limits crop yields of cowpea especially in arid sud-saharan areas of West Africa, the input of BurkinaP can improve cowpea N<sub>2</sub>-fixation, and increase and stabilize cowpea yields.</p> Koulibi Fidèle Zongo, Mohamed Traoré, Daouda Guébré, Edmond Hien, Didier Blavet, Inamoud Ibny Yattara, Jean-Jacques Drevon ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biochar: An Emerging Soil Amendment for Sustaining Soil Health and Black Gold for Indian Agriculture <p>At the international level, improving soil with coal is seen as a means to increase soil productivity, fertility and also to mitigate climate change. Biochar, which is used to increase land fertility and store carbon, is currently gaining scientific attention and popularity in the agriculture sector. It is a solid material made by pyrolysis process of any biomass, including weeds, agricultural leftovers and other plant wastes, to carbonise it and use it as a soil amendment and carbon sequestration medium. Biochar is a viable option for enhancing soil chemical properties such as cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil pH, as well as lowering exchangeable acidity. Biochar was also discovered to boost soil biota by boosting nutrient availability, improving habitat appropriateness, increasing water retention and aeration as well as lowering harmful compounds in the soil. Also, it can help to mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon in the soil and reducing nitrous oxide (N<sub>2</sub>O) and methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) gas emissions to the environment by enhancing soil absorption.</p> Vikram Shiyal, V. M. Patel, H. K. Patel, Mayur Rathwa, Piyush Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 11 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000