Open Access Original Research Article

Livelihood Diversification and Cocoa Farmers’ Wellbeing in Rural Cameroon; an Empirical Analysis

Joseph Tosam Ngong, Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030872

Cocoa farming is a key livelihood strategy for farmers in rural Cameroon, as studies have significantly revealed its contribution to the wellbeing of rural dwellers. Yet, the wellbeing outcomes of livelihood diversification for cocoa remains relatively less understood. This study analyzes the effects of livelihood diversification on the wellbeing of cocoa farmers in rural Cameroon using household data (N = 430) from six cocoa producing divisions in the South West Region. With the use of the Path Regression and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the study identified; access to credit, government assistance, temperature and rainfall, the use of chemical spray and fertilizers, and support from Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) as welfare determinants. Climate variability (temperature and rainfall) has a significant negative effect on cocoa production, while the use of fertilizers and chemical spray has a positive effect on cocoa production and thus household income (welfare). The study revealed that diversification has a positive effect on cocoa production and a negative effect on household income. The study therefore recommends the initiation of a policy that will enable the establishment of a “risk management scheme” (insurance scheme) for cocoa farmers which would include the following: Production Insurance, which compensates cocoa farmers for lower yield due to adverse climate, wildlife, pest infestation or disease and other disasters; Agristability, which will compensate cocoa farmers for significant drops in their prices and farm income.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Physico-Chemical, Functional, Granulometric, Mineral and Antioxidant Properties of Three (3) Flours FS, F40, F50 OF Young Shoots of Roan (Borassus aethiopum Mart.) According to the Drying Method

Niamke Arthur Michel, Assanvo Bomo Justine, Rouamba Taloute, Djaman Allico Joseph

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 15-28
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030873

The young shoot of roan (Borassus aethiopum Mart.) is cultivated and consumed in the cities of central Côte d'Ivoire such as Dimbokro. However, it has conservation problems, its nutritional value is not well known by the population and it is little processed by local industries. This study is a valorization of the young shoots of roan. In this study, the young shoots were dried respectively in the sun, at 40°C, at 50°C and then crushed to give respectively the FS, F40, F50 flours. The study of the physico-chemical properties gave, according to the flours, 6.47 to 7.17% for moisture; 5.71 to 6.07 for pH; 130.39 mg/100g on average for the reducing sugar content; 2.42 to 3.94% for total sugars; 0.53 to 1.07% for lipids; 6.23 to 7.57% for protein content; 2.19% on average for ash; 2.72 to 3.21% for fibre; 82.56 to 84.07% for total carbohydrates; 365.65 to 369.69 Kcal/100g for the energy value The study of functional properties revealed 60.55 to 63.63% for dispersibility; 0.70 to 0.75 g/ml for tapped density; 143.08% on average for water absorption capacity; 118.67 to 128% for oil absorption capacity; 18.17 to 25.66% for foaming capacity. The granulometry showed that all three (3) flours are composed of grains whose size is lower than 1mm. In addition 62.7%, 52.9%, 47.8% of the grains of the FS, F40, F50 flours have sizes in the interval ]250 µm, 125 µm]. The young shoots flours contain 243.45 to 280.44 mg/100g polyphenols; 68.46 to 83.03 mg/100g flavonoids; 45.47 to 59 mg/100g tannins. The mineral contents are 0.04 to 0.11 mg/kg for sodium; 0.02 mg/kg on average for phosphorus; 0.07 to 0.18 mg/kg for potassium; 0.11 mg/kg on average for calcium; 0.04 to 0.07 mg/kg for iron. The three (3) flours FS, F40, F50 of young shoots contain macronutrients, high energy value, fibre, interesting functional and granulometric properties, antioxidants, minerals that are beneficial for local populations and can be used by the food industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Marketing Cost, Marketing Margin and Constraints in Production of Paddy Cultivation in Prayagraj District of Uttar Pradesh

Rabina Laishram, Mukesh Kumar Maurya, Avinash Mishra, Pratyush Kumari Rath

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 44-50
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030876

The present study was conducted in Prayagraj district of Uttar Pradesh. A total of one hundred respondents were selected randomly. The data were gathered using pre-structured interview schedule. The study revealed that marketing cost, marketing margin, and price spread for channel I, paddy grower reaches to the consumers directly. Producer share in consumer price was 94.14 percent. Market efficiency was 16.07. Marketing cost, marketing margin, and price spread for channel II three intermediaries were identified through which paddy reaches to the consumers i.e, Village merchant, Miller, Retailers. This is the longest channel among the two identified channels. Producer share in consumer price was 57.19 percent. Market efficiency was 1.70. Among the ten constraints related to production of paddy was, high cost of plant protection chemicals was ranked first by sample farmers and was reported by 64.59% while high incidence of disease in the peak period ranked second.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Agricultural Practices on Vegetation Structure and Carbon Sequestration in the North Region Cameroon: The Case of the Lagdo District

Danwang Djaowe Bernard, Saliou Moussa, Pa Aï Vivien Nenwala, Gnapou Dieudonné, Karen Maigou Pohowe, . Tchobsala, Tezore Bakary Prudence

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 51-65
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030877

In order to preserve the For a good and sustainable management of vegetation in the Lagdo subdivision of the Benue division in North region Cameroon with respect to agricultural practices and the effects of climate change, a study on the impact of agricultural practices was conducted in six plant formations and three riparian villages. This study therefore assessed the impact of agricultural practices on vegetation with a focus on the assessment of plant population structure and quantification of sequestered carbon stock. Floristic surveys in six vegetation formations (forest galleries, shrub savannahs, tree savannahs, 2015/2016 crop fields, fallows of two (02) years and more than two (02) years on 50 m x 50 m plots were conducted. Floristic richness analysis identified 50 species across the surveyed sites, which were divided into 40 genera and 23 families. The most represented families in the sites are Caesalpiniaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Combretaceae, Mimosaceae and Rubiaceae, which have 5, 4, 4, 4 and 3 genera respectively. The Shannon diversity index is highest in forest galleries (3.32), in wooded savannahs (3.04); medium in fallows of more than 2 years (2.33), 2-year fallows (2.21) and shrub savannahs (2.20) and lowest in crop fields. Regarding carbon sequestration, forest galleries have carbon stocks of 57.47 tC/ha, followed by shrub savannahs with stocks of 12.66 tC/ha and fallows of more than 2 years with 3.64 tC/ha. The crop fields (0.12 tC/ha) present the lowest values, however lower than those sequestered by shrub savannahs (1.03 tC/ha) and 2-year fallows (0.88 tC/ha). The results of the study on agricultural practices in the Lagdo subdivision therefore confirm the need for sustainable management of natural resources to combat climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Marketing Cost, Marketing Efficiency and Constraints in Cauliflower Cultivation in Purnia District of Bihar, India

Supriya Anand, Mukesh Maurya, Suman Kumari, Shivangi Shimpy

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 66-71
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030878

India is the 2nd largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world leading in several horticulture crops Mango, Litchi, Banana, Papaya, potato, tomato, brinjal, lady finger. Cauliflower is one of the veggies in the species of Brassica, its edible part is curd. It has inviting taste and rich source of minerals like potassium, sodium, phosphorous, iron, calcium and magnesium, Vitamin B and C, protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibers. With this view a study was conducted in Purnia district of Bihar. The three channels are there channel I-Producer-Consumer where marketing efficiency is 25.33%, channel II-Producer-wholesaler-retailer-consumer where marketing efficiency is 3.64%, channel III – Producer-village trader-wholesaler-retailer-consumer where marketing efficiency is 3.51%, the main constraints of marketing was market was far from production point. The objective of the study is to estimate marketing cost, marketing efficiency and constraints in cauliflower cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Incidence of Rice Gundhi Bug, Leptocorisaoratorius F. (Hemiptera: Alydidae) in Three Different rice Growing Seasons of Assam

Priyanka Saikia, Bijon Chandra Dutta, Rituraj Saikia

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 72-78
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030879

Study on seasonal incidence of rice gundhi bugwas carriedout to know their incidence in threedifferent rice growing seasons of Assam, viz., sali (var. Ranjit), boro (var. Joymoti) and ahu (var. Disang) during 2020-21 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, AAU, Titabor.In sali rice, the lowest population (0.05 gundhi bug hill-1) was observed on 40th Standard Meteorological Week (SMW) and the highest (0.9 gundhi bug hill-1) was recorded on 46th SMW during 2020. In boro rice, the lowest population (0.3 gundhi bug hill-1) was recorded on 14th SMW and the highest of 3.75 gundhi bug hill-1 was recorded on 20th SMW during 2021. During ahu season, the lowest population (0.25 gundhi bug hill-1) was also recorded on 14th SMW and the highest (1.2 gundhi bug hill-1) was on 19th SMW during 2021. On an average, the highest population of gundhi bug was observed in bororice followed by ahu and sali. During saliseason, population build-up of gundhi bug showed significant positive correlation with morning relative humidity (r=0.734) and bright sunshine hour (r= 0.661). While, during boro and ahu rice the gundhi bug showed significant positive correlation with minimum temperature (boro, r = 0.600; ahu, r =0.649), evening relative humidity (boro, r= 0.643; ahu, r= 0.614) and number of rainy days (boro, r = 0.742; ahu, r= 710).

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantifying Water Use Efficiency in Paddy Production for Different Regions of Thenpennaiyaru River Basin (TRB) of Tamil Nadu

M. Venkatesh, A. Vidhyavathi, D. Suresh Kumar, A. Raviraj, M. R. Duraisamy

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 79-89
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030881

Agriculture is the world's greatest user and consumer of water. Crop irrigation accounts for two-thirds of all world water withdrawals and 85 per cent of total global water consumption. Today we face major issues on water scarcity which is closely related to “water stress” or “water crisis” is the lack of fresh water resources to meet the standard water demand. Irrigated cropping faces some issues on, decreasing water supply owing to increasing extraction and fewer inflows, as well as increased competition from other users in this context the current study focused on the estimation of crop water use efficiency and irrigation efficiency in the different regions of Thenpennaiyaru river basin (TRB) of Tamil Nadu. As per the Central Water Commission’s Basin Report, Thenpennaiyar Basin is the second largest interstate flowing river basin among the 12 basins lying between pennar and Cauvery basins. The river is the main source for irrigating over 38,000 acres in Krishnagiri district; 6250 acres in Dharmapuri district; 17,980 acres in Tiruvannamalai district and 25000 acres in Villupuram district and majority of population depend on this river for agricultural and allied activities. So, this river basin was purposefully selected for the present study to access the efficiency in water usage with the sample size of (320). As per the result CWUE is better in the head region (12.34 quintals/ha/mm) due to consistent water supply, which is directly dependent on effective management practices, which ultimately have higher efficiency and higher yield. Irrigation efficiency is most similarly in all three regions. The CWUE is a better indicator when quantifying the efficiency of a crop production system because it directly reflects the amount of grain yield produced per amount of water used rather than per depth of water applied, which is the case with the IWUE.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Organic and Conventional Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production in the West Region of Cameroon: An Economic Policy Review

Fon Dorothy Engwali, Neba Nancy Ngum, Asafor Henry Chotangui

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 90-99
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030882

Aims: To describe the socio-economic characteristics of potato producers, compare the performance and identify production challenges of organic and conventional potato production in the West region of Cameroon.

Study Design and Methodology: The study population refers to the conventional and organic potato producers in the West region of Cameroon. Purposive and snowball sampling technique were used in this study. A total sample size of 200 respondents was identified, 148 conventional farmers and 52 organic farmers. Out of 200 farmers interviewed, 55 from Mifi division (11 organic and 44 conventional) and 145 from Menoua division (41 organic and 104 conventional).

Results: Results revealed that majority of potato producers in the West region of Cameroon are male, 70.3% conventional farmers and 88.5% organic farmers. Most farmers are married (73% conventional and 78.9% organic farmers) and practiced livestock rearing in addition to potato production. Also, most farmers (59.5% conventional farmers and 59.6% organic farmers) have secondary education as their highest level of formal education. Information on yield revealed a productivity gap and production cost between conventional and organic potato farmers with a positive mean difference of 7,102.877kg and 765,184 frs respectively, significant at 5% level in favour of conventional farmers. Similarly, results showed a gap in revenue and gross margin between the two categories of farmers with a positive mean difference of 1,233,240 frs and 465,475.4 frs respectively, significant at 5% level in favour of conventional farmers. Analysis showed that 50% of conventional farmers interviewed noted rainfall variation as the main challenge faced in production while 80% of organic farmers have low seed quality as the main challenge.

Conclusion: Conventional potato farmers are better off than organic potato farmers in terms of yield and gross margins, thus bringing to limelight the question concerning the popular push of organic foods consumption as regard potato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of ICAR Schemes / Approaches- Progressive Farmers Perception on KVKs Activities

Sinki Barman, Animesh Deka, Rudra Narayan Borkakati, Niranjan Deka, Prasanna Kumar Pathak

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 100-104
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030883

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Nagaon has been full-fledged established in 2004 and the institution has been working betterment of the rural livelihood till date. On the basis of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), KVK, Nagaon planned different activities according to the thrust area. On the basis of requirement of the rural community various activities like On Farm Testing, Front Line Demonstration, Training were conducted in order to test performance parameters of newly released varieties of field crops and improved technologies. With an objective to evaluate the impact of different KVK activities disseminated the study was conducted in Nagaon district of Assam covering 40 numbers of beneficiaries. The primary data required for the study were collected from selected sample respondents through specially prepared schedules included the data relating to the profile of respondents, adoption of various improved agricultural practices. various approaches by which help progressive farmers to achieve their needs and found that approach like training is the highest frequency through which farmers are getting benefitted. According to the progressive farmers the various mode of dissemination through which the farmers are benefitted are Other Extension activities, Cluster Front Line demonstrations, Front Line Demonstration, On Farm Testing, DFI (Doubling Farmers’ Income) stood 2nd, 3rd, 4th ,5th and 6th rank respectively and reveals farmers perceptions towards impact of KVK technologies amongst Progressive farmers and shows that high level of adoption was seen at 42 per cent followed by medium level of adoption at 40.50 per cent. Progressive farmers suggested thatKVK should emphasise location specific dissemination of more numbers of latest technologies on agriculture and allied sector followed by steady cooperation. Mechanization, Organic farming, Market network and Horticultural sector ranks 3rd, 4th and 5th respectively in order to increase effectiveness of KVK system according to them. It can be recommended that more research works should be done for farmers friendly technology innovation, mechanized agriculture should be popularized to enhance productivity through establishment of sufficient numbers of Custom Hiring Centre and establishment of proper functioning organized market should be developed through Govt. policies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Foliar Application of Chitosan on Growth, Yield and Nutritional Qualities of Red Amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus L.)

Humaira Nasrin, H. M. Zakir, Nahida Akter Nipa, Nishita Rani Paul, Q. F. Quadir

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 105-116
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030884

Chitosan is a promising natural biopolymer that stimulates growth, increases yield, and boosts-up plants' immune systems. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar application of chitosan on growth, yield and quality attributes (viz. chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total ash and major nutrient contents) of red amaranth. The field experiment was laid out in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and six treatments [viz. T0 = Control (no chitosan application); T1 = 100 mg L-1; T2 = 150 mg L-1; T3 = 200 mg L-1; T4 = 250 mg L-1 and T5 = 300 mg L-1 chitosan solution]. The study results revealed that the application of chitosan at different doses had no significant effect on plant height, the number of leaves plant-1, and the moisture content of red amaranth. But there were significant variations in stem diameter, root length, and yield of red amaranth. Similarly, the application of chitosan at different doses also showed a significant effect on chlorophyll contents, carotenoids and total ash contents of red amaranth. The average chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophylls, carotenoids and ash content of red amaranth ranged from 6.02-9.51, 3.67-5.92 and 9.68-15.15 mg g-1 tissue, 0.20-0.28 µg g-1 sample (fresh wt.), and 16.36-17.69%, respectively. Among the major nutrient elements, the amount of Ca, Mg, Na, K and P in red amaranth was statistically insignificant among the treatments. On the contrary, the effect of foliar application of chitosan at different doses disclosed a statistically significant difference in S, Zn and Fe contents of red amaranth. The highest amounts of chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, total ash, S, and Fe in red amaranth were obtained from treatment T5. Finally, the study results concluded that foliar application of chitosan at 300 mg L-1 has a significant positive effect on the growth, yield, pigments, S, and Fe contents of red amaranth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Analysis of Marketing and Constraints of High Yielding Variety Paddy (HYV) vs. Black Aromatic Paddy (Chakhao) in Imphal East District of Manipur

Laimayum Shusman Sharma, Sanjay Kumar, Vikas Singh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 117-124
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030885

The present study was undertaken in Imphal East district of Manipur to know the marketing cost, marketing margin, price spread, producer’s share in consumer rupee, marketing efficiency of High Yielding Variety (HYV) paddy and Black aromatic paddy. A total of 120 sample respondents are analysed. Among these 42 are marginal farmers,36 are small farmers,26 are semi medium and 16 are medium farmers .For High yielding variety paddy, in channel I, overall average net price receive by producer is Rs.1885 per quintal and the consumer purchase price is Rs.2000 per quintal. In channel-II, overall average net price receive by producer Rs.1609 per quintal and the consumer purchase price is Rs.3000 per quintal. For Black Aromatic paddy, in channel-I, overall net price received by producer is Rs.6185 per quintal, and the consumer purchase price is Rs.6300 per quintal. In channel-II, overall net price received by producer is Rs.5109 per quintal and the consumer purchase price is Rs.12000 per quintal. Marketing efficiency revealed that for High Yielding Variety paddy (HYV) marketing efficiency of channel-I is high with 16.39. For Black Aromatic Paddy, Marketing efficiency of channel-I is high with 53.78.Farmer should chose for those marketing channels which have lesser intermediaries to get the maximum profits. Price fluctuation, lack of suitable govt. Policy like procurement and market regulation are the major marketing constraints to the sample farmer in study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Heterosis of Crosses between Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis and their Hybrids Collected from Minna Metropolis

S. O. Kolawole, T. A. Yisa, F. Bankole, T. Mustapha, C. E. Daniel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 125-131
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030886

Hybridization of Clarias gariepinus (Cl) and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Ht) and determination of their growth and heterosis parameters were performed. Four crosses (♀ × ♂) were tested: Cl X Cl, Cl X Ht, Ht X Cl, and Ht X Ht. Fifty 14-day-old juveniles from each of the four crosses were stocked separately in tripled plastic bowls. Fifteen fish were randomly selected each week using a fine mesh mosquito net and then weighed on a sensitive scale. The highest percentage of fertilization (58.57%) was recorded in the pure breed (Ht x Ht). The hybrid (Cl x Ht) had the highest hatching rate. Pure breeds recorded the highest condition factor (2.37), and hybrids had the highest feed conversion ratio. The Cl X Cl cross had the highest final mean weight (1980 mg) and the specific growth rate (SGR) of 4.91% / day compared to the other three crosses. Negative heterosis for growth (-14.95%) was observed in hybrids, while hybrid survival showed positive heterosis (26.56%). Poor growth of the hybrids explained the negative heterosis. Therefore, crossbreeds survived better than purebred catfish. There was a significant difference in the specific growth rate between the four genetic groups studied (P> 0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability of Using Different Rates of Farmyard Manure and Potassium Fertilizer for Cassava Production in Bukoba, Missenyi and Biharamulo Districts, Tanzania

Mgeta Steven Merumba, Ernest Semu, Johnson Mashambo Semoka, Balthazar Michael Msanya, Jojianas Kokulamka Kibura, Joyce Siima Blandes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 132-149
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030887

The resolution of using or not using a particular technology in crop production is governed by the profitability of that technology being used. A study was conducted in Bukoba, Missenyi and Biharamulo districts in the Kagera region during the 2018/19 and 2019/20 cropping seasons to determine the economic benefit of using different rates of farmyard manure (FYM) and potassium (K) fertilizer in cassava production. One village potential for cassava production was selected in each district for establishment of cassava trials. Three tillage methods [flat tillage, tied ridging and open ridging] and eleven fertilizer rates [FYM at 4 or 8 MT ha-1, N40P30 + K at 40, 80 or 120 kg ha-1, FYM at 4 or 8 MT ha-1 + K at 40, 80 or 120 kg ha-1] and the control, were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications using a split-plot design. Tillage methods were the main plots and fertilizer rates were the subplots. Cassava yields (MT ha-1) were collected at harvesting (12 months after planting). Partial budget analysis was carried out to estimate the gross values using the adjusted yields at market price for cassava and fertilizers. Costs and benefits were calculated on a hectare basis, in Tanzania Shillings (TShs) ha-1, and converted to USD ha-1 based on the prevailing exchange rate of 1 USD, equivalent to 2 300 TShs. All variable costs were summed up to total variable cost (TVC). The net benefits (NB) [gross benefit (GB) - TVC] ha-1 of the tested treatments were calculated and used to assess the profitability of each treatment. Moreover, the benefit-cost ratios (BCR) [net benefit ÷ TVC] of the tested treatments were compared to the acceptable value of greater than 2 for the technology to be adopted by farmers. The results indicated that in both cropping seasons, and in all studied sites, all the tested fertilizer types and rates gave acceptable BCR of greater than 2, implying that all the fertilizer types and rates could be used for cassava production in the study area. The results on net benefit indicated that the combined use of FYM at 8 MT ha-1 and potassium fertilizer at 80 kg K ha-1 gave higher net benefit (3 020 500 – 9 168 000 TShs ha-1 (1 313.3 – 3 986.1 USD ha-1) than the other fertilizer types and rates (1 915 000 – 9 024 500 (832.6 – 3 923.7 USD ha-1) and is therefore, desirable for increasing cassava root yield and net benefit. However, for the resource-poor farmers, the combined use of farmyard manure at 8 MT ha-1 and potassium fertilizer at 40 kg K ha-1 can still be adopted because, for some reason, not all the famers can afford the best treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Nutritional Quality and Therapeutic Virtues of Cassava Leaves Infected by the Mosaic Virus and Healthy in Central African Republic

Odilon Sylvain Nguerepende, Innocent Zinga, Emmanuel Kamba Mebourou, Silla Semballa, Xavier Worouwonga, Armel Namkona, Bruno Nguerekossi, Robert Ndjouenkeu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 150-162
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030888

Research Problem: Cassava leaves play an important role in the diet of the Central African population. Several studies have investigate the composition in nutrients of cassava leaves but only few study focused on the impact of the cassava mosaic virus disease, the main threat of the cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa, on the nutritional value of infected cassava leaves. The objective of this work is to determine the content of nutritional and anti-nutritional compounds in cassava leaves infected by the mosaic virus and healthy leaves.

Material and Methods: The study was performed on two cassava varieties that are M66033 (susceptible to be infected by the mosaic virus) and Togo or TMS66 (resistant to the virus) planted in the locality of Bangui, the Capital of the Central African Republic. Cassava leaves were collected 3 months after planting, separated according to the mosaic severity symptoms (0 to 5) and kept at 4°C in a fridge. Biochemical analyses were performed on leaves for the determination of fiber, protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents as well as antioxidant contents.

Result: The results showed that, the dietary fiber content is 44% in healthy leaves, it decreases from 42% to 26% in cassava leaves infected with mosaic virus. Protein content was 4% in the infected cassava leaf samples and 3% in the healthy cassava leaves. Lipid content decreases from 7% to 2% in mosaic-infected cassava leaves, it is 5% in healthy leaves. The carbohydrate content is 59% in mosaic-infected leaves and 43% in healthy leaves. The polyphenol content is 30 mgeq GA/ g in cassava leaves with mosaic symptoms and 28 mgeq GA/ g in healthy leaves. Flavonoid content decreases from 6 10-2 mgeq Q/ g to 0.510-2 mgeq Q/ g in cassava leaves with the mosaic symptom. Tannin content decreases from 6 10-2 to 0 mgeq cat/ g in mosaic infected cassava leaves. Tannin content is 210-2 mgeq cat/ g in healthy leaves. The defense mechanism developed by cassava plants infected with mosaic virus has an effect on the synthesis of biochemical compounds, fibers, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, polyphenols, Flavonoids and tannins. These results suggest that cassava leaves infected by mosaic virus are an excellent food for consumer health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Growth and Export Performance of Mango in India

K. Muthulakshmi, M. Thilagavathi, K. M. Shivakumar, M. R. Duraisamy, M. Kavino, M. Uma Gowri

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 163-169
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030889

India is one of the world's leading mango producers, generating more than half of the global supply. Mango exports from India in the year 2021-22 was 27,872.77 MT. Mangoes are accessible all year as fresh fruit and processed goods. However, in recent years India's export was failed to meet the international food safety requirements due to Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary problems. Hence, this study focussed on estimating the growth from 1991 to 2020 and the direction of mango exports from 2011 to 2020 from India. The time series data of mango area, production, productivity and export in quantity and value were collected from various publications like APEDA, Horticulture statistics at a glance. Over the entire period, production was significant at the one per cent level and the productivity of mangoes was increased. This study found that the export quantity and its value increased significantly and positively. But quantity was not equal in proportion to the growth rate of export in terms of value. The transition probability matrix revealed that UAE (United Arab Emirates) and Nepal were the stable markets for Indian mangoes, with trade retention of 59 and 22 per cent, respectively. This study suggested that developing norms for producing safe mangoes as knowledge advances would make it easier to grant, maintain and move forward with Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs).

Open Access Original Research Article

Insect Pests and their Direct Damage of Piliostigma reticulatum (D.C.) Hochst Flowers and Pods in North-Soudanian Region of Burkina Faso

DAO Madjelia Cangre Ebou, KOUSSOUBE Souleymane, BAZONGO Jean Paul

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 170-178
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030890

Aims: The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of insect pests of flowers, fresh and ripe pods of P. reticultum in Burkina Faso.

Study Design: The P. reticultum trees were selected randomly. Also, the collection of flowers and pods from these trees was done in the same way.

Place and Duration of Study: Flowers, fresh pods and mature pods of P. reticulatum were collected in a village in the province of Bam called Yilou.

The observations were conducted in the laboratory. The study was carried out between December 2020 and September 2021.

Methodology: 120 flowers, 200 fresh pods and 2000 ripe pods of P. reticulatum were collected. Fresh flowers and pods were collected randomly from 20 trees and ripe pods from 100 trees. In the laboratory, fresh flowers and pods were dissected and insects were collected. Ripe pods were stored in the laboratory in polyethylene bags at room temperature for up to six months. When the bags were opened, all the insects observed were captured and placed in vials containing 70º alcohol. Insect damage to the pods was assessed using a score from 1 to 5. The pods were then dissected and the insects were collected again. All insects were identified under a binocular "stereomicroscope using identification keys.

Results: The results showed that Thysanoptera (Thripidae) were the most important insects in the flowers followed by Hymenoptera (Formicidae) and Coleoptera (Curculionidae). The main pests on fresh pods were Lepidoptera larvae (Lepidochrysops quassi Karsch). The extent of damage on mature pods in storage was high with an average score of 4.68. The pests of these pods in stock are Caryedon serratus (Olivier) followed by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst).

Conclusion: The study revealed that thrips, L. quassi and C. serratus are the main pests of P. reticulatum flowers, fresh pods and socked pods respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Long Term Fertilizer and FYM Application on Soil Fertility of a Vertisol under Soybean-wheat Cropping System

Devendra Kumar Inwati, B. K. Dixit, Risikesh Thakur, B. S. Dwivedi, Abhishek Sharma, Vivek Singh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 179-184
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030891

The present studies were conducted under All India Coordinated Research Project on Long Term Fertilizer Experiment, which was commenced since, 1972. To assess the effect of 48 years (1972-73 to 2019-20) continuous application of inorganic fertilizers with or without organic manure i.e. FYM on soil fertility status of Vertisols under soybean-wheat cropping system. The results of the present study showed that the application of recommended dose of N, P and K (20:80:20 kg ha-1 to soybean and 120:80:40 kg ha-1 to wheat) with organic manure @ 5 t FYM ha-1 improved the status of available N, P and S but decline in available K. Further, the integrated use of fertilizers with organic manure enhanced the soil organic carbon contents (9.5 g kg-1) from its initial value (5.7 g ka-1). Conjoint use of FYM with 100% NPK substantially improved contribution towards sustaining the soil fertility. A declining trend (228 to 335 kg ha-1) from its initial value (370.0 kg ha-1) of available K status was also observed as a result of continuous application of fertilizer and manure; this indicates considerable mining of available K from the soil. However, the decline of K was of lower magnitude with 100% NPK + FYM and 150% NPK treatments indicating the need to raise the dose of K fertilizer application to meet the demand of crops. Further, soil available nutrients to be adversely affected due to the imbalanced use of nutrients viz., 100% NP or 100% N alone treatments. Thus, the balance use of fertilizers continuously either alone or in combination with organic manure is necessary for sustaining soil fertility and crop productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biocontrol Activity of Yeasts against Alternaria solani and Plant Growth Promotion of Tomato Plants

G. Ashiwini, B. C. Mallesha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 185-193
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030892

Aim: Yeasts have emerged as a single celled biocontrol agent which are applicable in controlling many disease causing pathogens in plants. These yeasts also have growth promoting substances that help in the growth and development of plants.

Materials and Methods: Yeast on tomato plants were isolated using standard plate count technique and observed under microscope for their cell shape and sizes. Biocontrol activity of yeast was evaluated by measuring diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) and estimating mycelial dry weights of pathogen. IAA production by yeasts was estimated in vitro and the plant growth and development was evaluated by measuring plant heights, number of leaves, number of days for flower initiation, shoot biomass, root mass, disease incidence and severity in pot culture experiments.

Results: Yeast isolate TPL-I isolated from tomato plants was most effective in inhibiting Alternaria solani with diameter of zone of inhibition of 9.00 mm. Reduced mycelial dry weight of pathogen viz., 40.07 mg was exhibited by TPL-I under in vitro conditions. The maximum concentration of IAA was produced by TPL- I (0.11 μg/ml). The highest plant height, number of leaflets and number of days taken for flower initiation was recorded highest in T4 (Trichoderma harzianum) followed by T7 (Foliar spray of Alternaria solani + TPL- I + Trichoderma harzianum) at 30, 45 and 60 days after transplanting. Maximum dry weight of shoot (12.32 g/plant) and root (5.18 g/plant) was recorded in T4 (Foliar spray of Trichoderma harzianum) whereas, minimum dry weight of shoot (8.26 g/plant) and root (2.80 g/plant) was recorded in T2 (Foliar spray of Alternaria solani). Lowest disease incidence (33.33%) and disease severity (24.25%) was recorded in T5 (Foliar spray of Alternaria solani + TPL- I).

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic and Financial Assessment of a Tapping System Reducing the Shortage of Tapping Labour in Rubber Tree Cultivation in Southeastern Côte d’Ivoire

Eric Francis SOUMAHIN, Akissi Ange Edwige N'DRI, Kiriwa Marie Chantal EZO, Yatty Justin KOUADIO, Samuel OBOUAYEBA

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 194-203
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030894

Rubber trees are the main source of natural rubber and a source of income for several companies and farmers around the world. However, its latex harvesting is threatened by the lack of tapping labour which can cause a considerable drop in rubber yield or even the collapse of this sector. This work aims to evaluate agronomically and financially a tapping system reducing the shortage of tapping labour. The study was carried out at the Société Africaine de Plantations d'Hévéa (SAPH) of Toupah in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire, during three months (from April to June 2018). Rubber tree clones comprising the three main metabolic activity classes, namely GT 1, RRIC 100, IRCA 230 and PB 217, with different years of latex harvesting were selected and subjected to two treatments (normal tapping and tapping system reducing the shortage of tapping labour) in a completely randomized blocks design with 4 repetitions. This comparative study was carried out on the basis of the agronomical parameters and the profitability of the tapping tested. The results showed that compared to normal tapping, tapping system reducing the shortage of tapping labour is more productive (+17%) and profitable (+18%). This tapping system reduces the operating expenses and social expenses by 3% and the shortage of tapping labour by 25%. It is an alternative to reduce the enormous shortage of tapping labour observed in Côte d'Ivoire and around the world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude Analysis of Agriculture Graduates towards Agriculture Education

P. Laxmi Prasanna, M. Bhandhavya, B. P. Mohapatra

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 204-208
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030896

The present study was conducted to analyze the attitude of agriculture graduates towards agriculture education. It is very important to analyze the attitude of agriculture studies towards agriculture education, as this is the one of important sector to serve the farming community in future. The study was conducted in Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar with 60 numbers of respondents by random sampling method. It has been observed that most of the respondents belong to general category, rural back ground, having good academic performance, interested to work as agriculture scientist and neutrally favorable towards agriculture education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Livelihood Security of Dairy Households in Bundelkhand: A Comparative Analysis

Pawan Kumar Gautam, Sujeet Kumar Jha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 209-214
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030897

Livestock is an integral part of Indian agriculture. Livestock will continue to play a key role in farming system even in the future. The present study was conducted in Bundelkhand region during 2018-19 to 2020-21 to find out the contribution of livestock to livelihood of dairy farmers of the region. Two districts for each state selected, then, two blocks from each district were selected randomly. Two villages from each block and 20 respondents from each village were randomly selected; thus, making the total sample size of 320 respondents for the study. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test was used for comparative analysis of livelihood security indicators for different category of farmers. Based on existing livelihood activities, the majority of the respondents in each category of farmer depend on farming for their livelihood followed by livestock rearing. Dominant livestock system pursued by marginal farmers was Buffalo+ Goat+ Sheep. Dominant livestock system pursued by small farmers was Buffalo+ Goat. Dominant livestock system pursued by semi-medium, medium and large farmers was cattle+ Buffalo. The results revealed that for more than 55 percent of the household’s income from livestock was the major contributor to gross income accounting for more than 50 percent of the gross income. In case of economic and social security, Small and semi-medium farmers were not significantly different, whereas, marginal, medium and large farmers were significantly different at the 5 percent level of significance. Small, semi-medium and medium farmers were not significantly different, whereas, marginal and large farmers were significantly different based on health, institutional and overall livelihood security at the 5 percent level of significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Plant Regeneration of Banana cv. Bhimkol (Musa balbisiana, BB) through Shoot Tip Culture

Manjula Rakshi, C. Kavitha, L. Pugalendhi, P. Paramaguru, D. Sudhakar, N. Meenakshi Ganesan, K. Soorianathasundaram

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 215-223
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030898

Bhimkol (Musa balbisiana, BB) is a wild diploid seeded cultivar, belonging to the family Musaceae. It is tolerance to pest and diseases, since it has high demand for commercialization for its high nutritive values. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to standardize the protocol for in vitro plant regeneration via shoot tips for further breeding programmes (in vitro mutagenesis). The efforts were made to improve the shoot proliferation efficacy through MS medium enhanced with different combinations of cytokinins (BAP and TDZ) and auxins (NAA) to achieve higher number of multiple shoots with shorter period. Among the different combinations of BAP, TDZ and NAA, T5 (MS + TDZ 0.1 mgL-1 + NAA 0.2 mgL-1) was recorded early response (6.60 days), percentage of explant response to initiation (93.33%), days taken for multiple shoot induction (46.40 days) and the highest number of shoots per explant (8.93). The days taken for rooting, number of roots per shoot and highest root length was noted in the treatment half strength MS + 1.0 mgL-1 IBA + 1.0 g L-1 activated charcoal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of the Main Dishes Made from the Pulp of Tomi (Tamarindus indica L) Consumed in the Savannah Region of Côte d'Ivoire

Konan Gbè Aya Jacqueline, Nimaga Daouda, Kouassi Kouakou Nestor, N’dri Yao Denis, Amani N’Guessan Georges

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 224-237
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030899

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) is a plant belonging to the Fabaceae family and the subfamily Caesalpinioidae that is often found in arid regions. The various parts of this tree are of great interest to rural African populations. The pulp of its fruit is used for the preparation of cold drinks or in the composition of several other foods. However, no study in Côte d'Ivoire has yet focused on these foods, only the juices or nectars of this wild fruit tree have been studied. Thus, a survey was conducted in the localities of Korhogo, Séguéla and Bouna with 135 people per locality in order to identify these foods, and then to determine their modes, forms, frequency of consumption and their processes. The survey revealed that most of consumers are without level of education (78.51%), Ivorian (84.94%) and married (80.99%). The places of supply of tomi are often the field (65.18%-71.64%) than the market (32.84-41.67%) and in its pod form (65.93-73.13%). People use pods and pulp to make 10 tomi-based foods with a meal/drink ratio of 7:3. This fruit is consumed by rural populations for health needs, for its taste and for the color it gives to dishes. The frequency of consumption varies from 0 to 3 times per month and the Sougé-baca appears as the most known and consumed food with a percentage of knowledge of 74.07 and a frequency of consumption of 3 times per month. Sougé-baca is a meal more consumed at breakfast and at the Muslim jêun break. The production diagram of Bacacrou (Sougé-baca, Badégé-baca, Manou-baca and Sougé ni manou-baca) vary according the practices of the three localities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Stand Densities and NPK Fertilizer on Growth and Calyx Yield of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Sudan Savanna Zone of Nigeria: An Approach towards Growth Characters

N. M. Inuwa, A. A. Fagge, A. M. L. Mohamed, A. Lado, A. M. Aliyu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 238-247
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030900

The field experiment was conducted during the 2019 rainy season at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Centre for Dryland Agriculture (CDA), Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria (Latitude 11058’N and Longitude 8026’) and the Training and Research Farm of Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil located at Gaya to evaluate the response of Roselle to NPK fertilizer and stand densities on calyx yield. The treatments consisted of five levels of NPK fertilizer (0, 80, 100, 120, and 140 kg/ha) and four stand densities (2, 3, 4, and 5 plants/hill), which were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data was collected on plant height, the number of leaves per plant, leaf area per plant, and the number of branches per plant. These were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GenStat 17th Edition and the means were separated using the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result showed that the stand density of 5 plants/stand significantly produced the tallest plants. The result also showed that the application of different NPK levels had a significant (P<0.05) effect on plant height, the number of leaves, and the leaf area of Roselle across the two experimental sites. The highest values of plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches were influenced by the application of 140 kg/ha of NPK at both locations. The control plots recorded the lowest values for all the characters studied. Based on these findings, 5 plants/stand and application of 140 kg/ha NPK fertilizers are recommended.

Open Access Review Article

Benefits of Carotenoid Astaxanthin: A Review

Sandipan Das, Supratim Chowdhury, Swarnadyuti Nath, Asik Ikbal, Ankures Bhattacharya, Sayani Roy, Prasanta Murmu, F. H. Rahman

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 29-43
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2022/v44i1030875

Astaxanthin is a high value keto-carotenoid pigment renowned for its commercial application in various industries such as aquaculture, food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical sectors. It is commonly employed in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture to give the pink hue that these species are known for. Scientific literature reviews have persistently demonstrated the instrumental role of astaxanthin in targeting several animal health conditions. Most importantly, the profound effect on pigmentation, where astaxanthin is frequently utilized as an additive in formulating diets to boost and improve the coloration of many aquaculture farmed species, subsequently product quality, consumers’ acceptance and market demand are increasing, and revenue generated. Moreover, the wide range of other physiological benefits of astaxanthin includes various improvements in survival, growth performance, reproductive capacity, stress tolerance, and disease resistance as well. Also, astaxanthin has some other applications like, it is an anticancerous agent, it can prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and enhances nutritional qualities. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. This manuscript basically reviews the current available evidence regarding biological sources of astaxanthin, extraction procedures, stability, biological activity, health benefits, and commercial uses.