Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence and Importance of Traits in Luffa cylindrica L.

Carla Caroline Alves Pereira, Marcelo Gurgel Medeiros, José Sisenando de Senna e Silva Neto, Manoel Abilio de Queiróz, Aurélio Paes Barros Júnior, Lindomar Maria da Silveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44544

This work aimed at estimating the genetic divergence between luffa accessions (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. J. Roem) by means of multivariate analysis techniques and at verifying the importance of the assessed traits for the study of genetic divergence. Two trials were carried out in the municipality of Mossoró, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The trials were carried out in incomplete block design, comprising two experiments in completely randomised blocks with four regular treatments and two treatments common to both experiments, amounting to a number of ten treatments, with three replications. Each luffa accession composed one treatment. Eleven descriptors (three quantitative and eight qualitative) were measured in order to quantify genetic divergence, using Gower’s algorithm as a measure of dissimilarity, and one joint analysis was carried out considering quantitative and qualitative descriptors simultaneously. The UPGMA hierarchical method was adopted to group the genotypes, and the Singh criterion was elected in order to quantify the contribution of the traits to genetic divergence. It could be verified that there are accessions presenting great divergence from one another. Accessions BUCHA06 and BUCHA22 were the most divergent from the others, and accessions BUCHA06 and BUCHA10 were noted to be the most similar. The median portion fiber texture, the upper portion fiber texture, and fruit mass were found to be the most important traits for estimating genetic divergence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Irrigation Scheduling Optimisation in Olive Groves

A. Capra, B. Scicolone

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44582

Introduction: The diffusion of irrigation in olive orchards requires accurate scheduling of the application of water.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficiency of different modes of irrigation scheduling for mature olive trees grown at different plant densities and in different soil types and irrigated under different systems and strategies.

Methodology: We compare the irrigation scheduling with variable quantities and intervals (OPT), optimised by the water balance-evapotranspiration method (WB-ET) by evaluating the use of variable quantities and different fixed intervals (3, 7, 14 and 28 days) as well as a fixed interval and quantity (FIX). These scheduling scenarios were applied to high-density and super-high density groves in medium to fine textured and moderately coarse to medium textured soils irrigated by sprinkler, microjets and drip irrigation systems under full and deficit (sustained, SDI and regulated, RDI) irrigation strategies in a Mediterranean environment (Calabria Region, Italy). Three sets of measured meteorological data (2016, 2017 and the mean values of the 2001-2017) were used for simulations.

Results: OPT scheduling showed maximum efficiency. Three-day and weekly intervals show acceptable performance in terms of efficiency as well as water and energy requirements, whereas FIX scheduling shows very low efficiency. SDI and RDI permit mean savings of approximately 36%-54% of water and energy compared to full irrigation. High-density orchards drip irrigated under the SDI strategy show minimum water and energy requirements.

Conclusions: The traditional irrigation strategy at fixed quantity and interval is not adequate to achieve high efficiency in the irrigation of olive orchards, from both the agronomic (reduction of crop water stress) and economic (reduction of water and energy requirements) point of view. The optimisation of the irrigation scheduling requires the estimate of the water quantity to deliver in each irrigation in both the irrigation management at variable and fixed interval. The WB-ET model is an efficient and (relatively) simple tool to foresee the quantities and the dates of irrigation during the irrigation season.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Point of Harvest of Pomegranates through the Analysis of Bioactive and Antioxidant Compounds during the Development Stages of the Fruit

Elny Alves Onias, Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha, Tádria Cristiane de Sousa Furtunato, Eliane Alves Onias, Osvaldo Soares da Silva, Albert Einstein Mathias de Medeiros Teod, Marines Pereira Bomfim, Agda Malany Forte de Oliveira, José Franciraldo de Lima

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44789

The knowledge of the biochemical and physical-chemical transformations that happen in each stage of the development of the fruit is important to point the maturation rates and to define the point of harvest. Thus, this work intended to characterize the ‘Molar’ pomegranate regarding the changes on its bioactive compounds and its antioxidant potential during the phenological stages of its development, as a support to determine its point of harvest. Flowers were marked on the field, in a farm in Várzeas de Sousa, Paraíba, with ribbons of different colors, to register the age of the fruit in days after the anthesis (DAA). The harvests supposed to characterize the phenological stages were reaped at 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 DAA, and those fruits were submitted to the laboratory, where a randomized experimental design was conducted, which treatments were the ages of the fruit, registered in days after the anthesis, with four repetitions and five fruit per parcel. 90-day-old fruit display the best quality indicators for the harvest and the commercialization of raw products. When pomegranate cv. ‘Molar’ is 90 days old, it reaches the maximum value of soluble solids, SS/TA ratio, total amount of sugars, reducing sugars, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity, while it presents a reduction of the titratable acidity, the pH and the phenolic compounds. The ascorbic acid and the anthocyanins were the main bioactive compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity of the pomegranate cv. Molar analyzed through the DPPH and ABTS methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phosphorus Doses in the Production of Parkia nitida (Miquel) in Seedling Nursery in the South of Amazonas

Hugo Cesar Tadeu, Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro, Marcio Rodrigues Miranda, Leandro Coutinho Alho, Leandro Coutinho Alho, Pedro Italiano de Araújo Neto, Álefe Lopes Viana

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44675

Aims: Little is known about the Arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) inoculation effects on the initial development of Parkia sp. and phosphorus nutritional needs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the AMF inoculation in different phosphorus doses on initial Parkia nitida growth of.

Study Design: The study was carried out in a completely randomized design in a 5x2 factorial scheme (5 doses of phosphorus in the absence and presence of AMF inoculation). Inoculation was done by applying 5 ml of inoculum soil containing a mix of spores (70 spores/m) of the species Acaulospora longula, Acaulospora morrowiae, Dentiscutata heterogama and Paraglomus occultum.

Place and Duration of Study: Experiment occurred at the Amazonas Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology - Campus Lábrea (7°15'02.9"S 64°47'05.5"W) between January 2017 and December 2017.

Methodology: The variables analysed were the Survival Rate (SR), height (h), lap diameter (d), Seedling Quality Index (h/d), leaflet area (LFA), leaflet number (LFN), shoot dry mass (SDM), dry mass of the root (DMR), DMPA/DMR ratio, total dry mass (TDM) and Dickson Quality Index (DQI).

Results: The variables h and h/d were significant (P=.05) for the interaction between factors only for the treatment without inoculation. It was not possible to determine the appropriate phosphorus dose for the Parkia nitida seedlings production. However, aerial part of the seedlings positively responded to the phosphorus doses increase.

Conclusion: Inoculation did not show significant results in the experimental conditions as well as in the phosphorus interaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Three Types of Fertiliser on the Agronomic Potential of a Hybrid Variety of Maize (Zea mays L.), Grown in Korhogo Commune in Côte d’Ivoire

Siené Laopé Ambroise Casimir, Coulibaly Lacina Fanlégué, Kouamé Konan, Conde Mariame, Koné Mamadou, Aké Séverin

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44727

Objective: Maize is a crop whose grains are involved in the diet of West African populations, and also in the food of the populations of the Korhogo region. However, the yield of this crop is still low in the region. The study was initiated to help increase maize production by assessing the effects of different types of mineral and organic fertilisers on maize yield. The study was conducted, for 6 months, on the experimental site of the University Peleforo Gon Coulibaly of Korhogo, located in the north of Côte d'Ivoire.

Methodology: The device used is in a Fisher block, comprising 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The 4 treatments studied included a mineral fertiliser Yara Mila Actyva, composition NPK 23-10-5 + 3S + 2MgO + 0.3 Zn, two types of organic fertiliser (organic foliar fertiliser BioDeposit Elixir or BDE and organic fertiliser Phytobiologique Aval or EPA) and the control without fertiliser.

Results and Conclusion: The results obtained showed that all production characteristics and yield were improved by the different types of fertiliser supplied. Mineral fertiliser, with an average yield of 12,373 kg ha-1, gave the highest yield. Organic fertilisers, with yields of 6,560 kg ha-1 for PBA and 9,153 kg ha-1 for BDE, significantly improved maize production compared to the control yield (5,972 kg ha-1). In a context where the high price of mineral fertilisers is very often a hindrance to the intensification of maize cultivation, this study is a contribution to fertilisation through the use of organic fertilisers and adapted to the socio-economic conditions of the region, knowing the low income of the peasants.