Open Access Original Research Article

Economics and Efficiency of Rain-Fed Cabbage Production (Brassica oleracea Var. Capitata) in Kaduna State, Nigeria

S. Abdulrahman, B. D. Magaji, A. S. Onwuaroh, O. S. Adejoh, G. Binuyo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/25481

Aims: To analyze Economics of Rain-fed Cabbage Production in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Primary data were collected from 130 cabbage farmers with the aid of structured questionnaire.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in three local government areas (Kudan, Sabon-Gari and Zaria) in Kaduna state during 2015 cropping season.

Methodology: Multistage purposive and random sampling techniques were employed for data collection.

Results: The results of the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the stochastic frontier production function model revealed that farm size was significant to cabbage output. The technical efficiency scores revealed that the most efficient farmer operated at 98% efficiency, the least efficient farmer was found to operate at 1% efficiency level, while the mean was indicating that rain-fed cabbage farmers still have room to increase the efficiency in their farming activities from the optimum (100%) is yet to be attained by a typical farmer in the study area. However, the mean economic efficiency of the rain-fed cabbage farmers was 0.80, implying that output fell by 20% from the maximum possible attainable level due to economic inefficiency of the farmers. The inefficiency model revealed that age squared, family size, extension contact and educational level, increased TE, while credit access and farming experience were the determinant of allocative efficiency of the farmers.

Conclusion: This study carried out an assessment of economic efficiency of rain-fed cabbage farmers in selected local government areas of Kaduna state, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that there is positive and significant relationship between farm size and cabbage output in the study area. The study also identified the determinants of the technical inefficiency of the farmers. The farm specific technical efficiency distribution reveals that none of the farmers achieved the maximum efficiency level. Thus, within the context of efficient agricultural production, output can still be increased by 13 percent using available inputs and technology by reallocating the resources more optimally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Sunflower Hybrids Cultivated in Different Sowing Seasons in Mato Grosso, Brazil

Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon, Marcelo José Marchesini, Anderson Morais Kimecz, Diego Hahn Machado, Claudio Guilherme Portela de Carvalho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/45302

This study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of five sunflower hybrids during two sowing seasons in Campo Novo do Parecis, the main sunflower producing municipality of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The trials were sown in March 2016 (second summer crop) and October 2017 (main summer crop) in a completely randomised block design with five hybrids (ACA 869, ACA 889, 13P30, 15P29, SYN 045) and five replicates. The hybrids showed higher achene yield in the second summer crop due to their lower incidence of Alternaria leaf spot. This increase was reflected in the largest number of achenes per head and mass of a thousand achenes. The hybrids SYN 045, 15P29, ACA 869 and ACA 889 showed satisfactory achene yield in the second summer crop. The SYN 045 hybrid presented higher values for shoot dry mass and shoot green mass in the two sowing seasons and therefore greater potential for silage. The cultivation of sunflower hybrids in the main summer crop in Campo Novo do Parecis (MT) may show low achene yield when satisfactory control of the Alternaria leaf spot is not established.

Open Access Original Research Article

Change of Main Components and Physiological Functions of Post-fermented Green Tea with Reduced Caffeine

Kieko Saito, Yoriyuki Nakamura

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44717

We developed a post-fermented tea that contains reduced caffeine and exhibits positive functions to maintain our health. We also analysed the main components and physiological function of the post-fermented tea compared to green tea as the control. The tea leaves with reduced caffeine were fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum) for four weeks. HPLC was employed to analyse the caffeine, catechin and theanine in the infusion of post-fermented tea leaves. The antioxidative activity was analysed spectrophotometrically. The preadipocyte (3T3-L1) differentiation-inhibitory test, which is an index of anti-obesity, was employed. As fermentation progressed, theanine and catechin contents tended to decrease, though caffeine level was unchanged. The infusion of the post-fermented tea exhibited high antioxidative activity during fermentation, while important antioxidant catechin content was decreased. In addition, the preadipocyte differentiation-inhibitory test showed the inhibition effect of the post-fermented tea infusion on adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. These results showed that the fermentation did not affect the antioxidant and anti-adipogenesis activities. Fermentation denatured the structure of leaf tissue, and some novel molecules might have been produced, exhibiting positive effects. These results showed that the post-fermented tea we developed was a unique tea product showing antioxidative activity and adipogenesis inhibitory effect and may prove to be a functional food for our health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Potassium Concentration on Some Agrophysiological Parameters of Pineapple Plants (Ananas comosus L. cv. Smooth Cayenne and MD2) Grown in Côte d'Ivoire

Coulibaly Souleymane, Yapo Sopie Edwige Salomé, Ouattara Généfol, Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/45079

Introduction: The Ivorian production of pineapple was on the decrease from 213620 t in 1999 to 30000 t in 2013. This decline in the production of pineapple would in part be linked to the quality of the fruit that is acid and especially the sensitivity of the fruit to browning enzymatic. The deterioration of the fruit quality would be due to the absence of good adequate cultural practice. 

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the level of concentration of potassium applied on the physiological state of the pineapple plant. 

Place and Duration of the Study:  The experimental tests were conducted on the site of Nangui Abrogoua University (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire) from July 2015 to the end of October 2016.

Methodology: Four applications of potassium were applied in the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 7th month after sowing, with 20 g of K2O/plant (T0), 28 g of K2O/plant (T1), 34 g of K2O/plant (T2), 40 g of K2O/plant (T3).The chlorophyll content, potassium and proline accumulation as the biomass of the sheet of pineapples to the floral induction have been determined as a function of the amount of potassium applied to the plant.

Results: The results showed that the biomass and leaf area of pineapple increase with the amount of potassium applied up to 34 g of K2O/plant. The excess of this nutrient entails a reduction of the chlorophyll synthesis and accumulation of proline in the leaves. 

Conclusion: In addition to the report K/N (which must not exceed 2.5), the additional inputs of potassium in the culture of the pineapples must also consider the report K/Mg=1 for a good productivity.

Open Access Review Article

Monitoring of Wheat and Rice Nitrogen Status by Remote Sensing

M. Irfan, Z. I. Ahmed, T. A. Khan, Waqas Ahmad, Muhammad Tanveer Akhtar, Khawar Iqbal, Muhammad Naveed Malik

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/16566

Crop growth and production are dependent on the amount of total nitrogen (N) absorbed by plants, but as well as also on the N distribution within plant canopies. Nitrogen (N) is the major agricultural input in all over the world and applying the optimum amount of N at the right time, place and at the critical physiological stage is a major challenge for wheat and rice growers. Assessment of canopy nitrogen content (CNC) at the right timing in crops is important for growth diagnosis and precision management of crops to gain maximum yield and better quality while also reducing adverse environmental impacts. Hence, to minimize the losses of nitrogen fertilizer, environmental pollution from cropping activities, a reliable, real time and non -destructive techniques of remote sensing are needed to monitor crop N status and site-specific N management in agricultural fields. Remote sensing has been widely used for determination of crop N status. In this review paper the results of previous studies that investigated the monitoring of crop nitrogen content (CNC) and the remote sensing methods that have been proposed to monitor this phenomenon for wheat and rice crops has been discussed. When a complete understanding of monitoring of N status in the crop is achieved, researchers will be able to improve related quantitative modeling. Regarding monitoring of crop nitrogen content (CNC) by using remote sensing, the few existing methods can be mentioned according to the hyper spectral data used. This paper has reviewed the results of different technological methods of remote sensing to monitor the nitrogen content of wheat and rice. All these methods and techniques for the monitoring of (CNC) are presented here and it is hoped that this work can provide helpful information for future work.