Open Access Original Research Article

Initial Development of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under Weed Competition with Different Species of Grasses

Lara Maisa da Silva Alcântara, Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Silvia Maria Marinho Storti, Ana Eliza da Silva Lima, Nubia Priscila de Olibveira Crispim, Gabriel Geminiano da Silva, Alan dos Santos Cardoso

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45613

Introduction: All cultivated plants are subject to intra and interspecific grass competition, once this competition may gradually increase within the crop cycle.

Objective: In view of the above, this work aims to evaluate the initial development of sunflower, when submitted to competition with different species of grasses.

Material and Methods: A randomized block design was installed in a 2x4 factorial scheme, with two grass species, Urochloa decumbens cv. Basilisk and Panicum maximum cv. Mombasa, with four densities of competition with grasses, plus a control group (absence of grass) and four replications, total of 36 plots.

Results and Discussion: During the sowing of the grasses, the following densities were considered: low; average; high and very high density of competition. While there was an increase in density of competition, sunflower development was impaired.

Conclusion: The initial development of sunflower was impaired, with a yield of 49.06 cm2 for each weed and Panicum maximum species caused greater damage to the crop. The aerial part and the sunflower stomata were compromised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Options for Reference Evapotranspiration Estimation in Northern Espírito Santo and Eastern Minas Gerais States, Brazil

André Dalla Bernardina Garcia, Gustavo Haddad Souza Vieira, Guilherme Peterle, Paula Alberti Bonadiman, João Luis Frizzera Junior, Rafaela Melim Grazzioti, Paola Alfonsa Vieira Lo Monaco, Ismail Ramalho Haddade, Alberto Chambela Neto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45818

Due to the misuse and management of drinking water sources, in the last few decades there has been increasing waste of this resource and, as a consequence, the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, has experienced a period of water crisis that has resulted in a fall in production in several agricultural sectors. In view of this, it is proposed that measurements related to water management should be carried out, such as the estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0), with the objective of optimising water use in agriculture by more efficient management, based on the collection and calculation of daily climatic data. Thus, this study aimed to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ET0) using six different methods and to compare the results with the values ​​estimated by the Penman-Monteith-FAO 56 (PM) method in the municipalities of Aimorés, MG and Linhares, ES, Brazil. The methods of Hargreaves-Samani (HS), Solar Radiation FAO (RS-FAO), Makkink (MKK), Jense-Haise (JH), Linacre (LIN) and simplified Penman (PS) were investigated. For both cities, the results were similar in terms of method performance, especially PS and RS-FAO, with the highest indexes and efficiency, as well as smaller errors, followed by HS and MKK, both with indexes smaller than the most efficient methods. However, it was necessary to apply linear adjustment, using the coefficients "a" and "b". The LIN method is not recommended for either city, since the results using this method were unsatisfactory for most analyses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Physicochemical Properties of Aubergine (Solanaceae) Varieties Solanum aethiopicum gilo and Solanum melogena Grown in Northern Côte d'Ivoire

Niamke Arthur Michel, Diby N’Nan Sylvie, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Sea Tehi Bernard, Djaman Allico Joseph, Djaman Allico Joseph

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45654

Aubergines are common vegetables widely consumed by populations in various meals. Unfortunately, these legumes are not soundly investigated whereas their properties are known to be influenced by environmental conditions. The current work focuses the physico-chemical traits of two aubergines, namely Solanum aethiopicum gilo and Solanum melogena usually produced and marketed in Northern Côte d'Ivoire for better valorisation.

From both aubergines fruits sampled from the main local markets, the comparative physicochemical properties reveal higher size, weight and protein content for S. melogena, with respective values of 15.51±1.73 cm, 161.21±33.82 g, and 1.81±0.06%. With S. aethiopicum gilo, greater contents are recorded for reducing carbohydrates (0.18±0.02%), phytates (27.74±0.86 mg/100 g), and oxalates (36.85±5.63 mg/100 g). Besides, the median circumference and the contents in moisture, fat, total carbohydrates, crude fibre, vitamin C, polyphenols, ash and mineral elements, as well as the total caloric energy value of both raw food products are not statistically different at 5% significance. The study strengthens the dietary fibre and natural polyphenols and minerals intake from the consumption of these aubergines although phytates and oxalates are recovered within as antinutrients components.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Potency and Antifungal Efficiency of Four Local Terminalia Species against Fusarium Strains

E. Kporou Kouassi, I. Coulibaly, R. Pop, P. Adela, J. Djaman Allico

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45047

Aims: To evaluate in vitro antifungal activities of four selected Terminalia species and their antioxidant potencies.

Study Design: Activities were directed on the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant potency of plant's extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Environment and Plant Protection, and Laboratory of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (USAMV) between March to July 2014, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Microbiology (Bioactives Natural Substances Unit), Jean Lorougnon Guédé University between September 2014 to January 2015.

Methodology: Growth inhibitory effect of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the stem barks of Terminalia Catappa, Terminalia ivorensis, Terminalia mantaly and Terminalia superba were tested in vitroby applying agar slant double dilution method against Fusarium oxysporum sp tuliipaeFusariumoxysporum sp radicis-lycopersici and Fusarium graminearum. MIC and MFC values were determined. The measurement of antioxidant activity of the tested extracts was done through DPPH scavenging method.

Results: All test fungi were susceptible to both ethanolic and methanolic extracts of all Terminalia species tested in dose-effect relationship. Methanolic extracts of each Terminalia sp. tested had lowest values with MIC and MFC ranging between 3.125 to 25 µg/ml. Terminalia ivorensis extracts were the most active (MIC ranging between 3.125 to 50 µg/ml) and F. oxysporum sp tulipae was the most susceptible fungi to the different plant extracts. Methanolic extracts of each Terminalia sp were fungicidal. The highest potentials antioxidant were obtained with Tivorensis extracts at 462.34 mM Trolox/1 ml methanolic extract and 444.4114 mM Trolox/1 ml ethanolic extract.

Conclusion: The stem bark of Terminalia species tested had potential as both sources of antifungal compounds for controlling Fusarium contamination and natural antioxidant substances for human healthcare.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Weed Control Efficacy and Peanut Tolerance to Pyroxasulfone Herbicide in the South Texas Peanut Production Area

W. James Grichar, Peter A. Dotray, Todd A. Baughman

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45347

Aims: Determine weed efficacy and peanut tolerance to pyroxasulfone in the south Texas peanut growing area.                                                    

Study Design:  Randomized complete block design with 3 replications.                          

Place and Duration of Study: Texas A&M AgriLife Research Site near Yoakum (29.276°N, 97.123°W) in south-central Texas during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons.

Methodology: Two studies were conducted: 1) determine weed efficacy with pyroxasulfone and 2) determine variety tolerance to pyroxasulfone.  Each plot at Yoakum consisted of two rows spaced 97 cm apart and 7.9 m long.  Herbicides were applied with a CO2 compressed air backpack sprayer equipped with Teejet 11002 DG flat fan spray tips which delivered a spray volume of 190 L/ha at 180 kPa.  In the weed efficacy study, all field plots were naturally infested with dense populations of Urochloa texana Buckl.(6 to 8 plants/m2) and Cucumis melo L. (6 to 8 plants/m2), and moderate Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. (4 to 6 plants/m2) populations.  In the variety tolerance study, pyroxasulfone alone at 0.12 and 0.25 kg ha-1 was compared with flumioxazin alone at 0.11 and 0.22 kg ha-1, flumioxazin plus pyroxasulfone at 0.07 + 0.09 and 0.14 + 0.18 kg ha-1, and S-metolachlor alone at 1.46 and 2.82 kg ha-1.  All herbicides were applied preemergence and the test area was kept weed-free. Weed control and peanut injury was visually estimated on a scale of 0 to 100 (0 indicating no control or plant death and 100 indicating complete control or plant death), relative to the untreated control.

Results: Pyroxasulfone alone at 0.09 kg ha-1 provided erratic control of Urochloa texana and Cucumis melo but excellent control of Amaranthus palmeri. Peanut varieties exhibited excellent tolerance to pyroxasulfone at 0.12 and 0.25 kg ha-1.

Conclusion: These results indicate that pyroxasulfone can be an effective herbicide for weed control in south Texas peanut growing region. Also all peanut varieties showed excellent tolerance to pyroxasulfone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Concentrations on the Physical Quality Characteristics of Two Varieties of Plantain Stored under Three Ripening Stages

B. Addisou, B. K. Maalekuu, P. K. Tandoh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45666

Plantain is an important fruit crop in the diet of local populations with an important growing international market but due to its high postharvest losses. This experiment was set up to assess the effect of 1-MCP and packaging materials on the physical properties of the two varieties of plantain (“Apem” and “Apentu”). A 2×3×3 factorial experiment was used for the plantain fruits physical quality determination at the laboratory under ambient condition. Weight Loss, Moisture Content, Fruit Firmness, Pulp firmness, Shelf Life that were investigated were significantly different (P<0.01).  From the results, untreated fruits had the highest mean physiological weight loss of 10.33% to 5.38%. “Apem” with 1-MCP (2ppm) had highest mean fruit firmness of 88.50N as compared to untreated fruit which had the lowest mean of 63.83N. For pulp firmness, “Apem” treated with 1-MCP (2ppm) had the highest mean of 76.83N.”Apem” treated with 1-MCP (2 ppm) kept in non –perforated polyethylene bag (NP) recorded the highest shelf life period of 36.75days (37days) whereas “Apentu” treated with 1-MCP (2ppm) kept in non-perforated polyethylene bag (NP) had shelf life of 33.00days (33days). Hence, the interaction between fruits, 1-MCP and Packaging could extend shelf life of plantain fruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of L-Dopa in Replacing Dl-Methionine on the Performance of Broiler Chickens

B. R. O. Omidiwura

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45401

The L-Dopa found in mucuna seed, when present with other antinutritional factors, has been implicated on nutritional disorders of monogastric animals. It is also reputed to influence muscular development. However, information on its effect on methionine utilisation is scanty. Therefore, the effect of L-Dopa on growth performance and its replacement for DL-methionine in broiler chickens was investigated.

In a 42-day trial, between August and September 2014, two hundred and forty one-day old chicks were allotted to six diets which contained a diet with 0 % L-Dopa + 0 % DL-methionine and other five diets containing L-Dopa replacing DL-methionine at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 %. All treatments had 4 replicates with 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Feed Intake (FI), Final Weight (FW), Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Serum Methionine (SM), Methionine Adenosyltransferase (MAT), Breast Meat Protein (BMP), liver enzymes, haematological parameters and serum biochemical indices were determined following standard procedure. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P = .05.

The result revealed that the FI, FW and BWG of birds fed diets containing 0%L-Dopa+100% methionine (3491.2 g, 2148.8 g and 2108.5 g) and 50 % L-Dopa + 50 % methionine (3556.1 g, 2137.6 g and 2097.3 g) were similar but significantly better than other diets. The FCR (1.86) of broilers fed 0 % L-Dopa +0 % methionine diet was better than other diets. It was also observed that the MAT (0.45 ng/ml) of broilers fed diet containing 50 % L-Dopa + 50 % methionine was higher than that of other diets but similar to MAT of birds on 75 % L-Dopa + 25 % Methionine. Haematology, SM, BMP and liver enzymes were not significantly affected across treatments.

L-Dopa extract, at levels tested, had no detrimental effect on broilers and can replace synthetic DL-methionine up to 50 %. Therefore, 0.2 % inclusion of L-Dopa is recommended in diets of broiler chickens for improved performance and utilisation of available methionine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Posture Analyses and Biomechanical Evaluation of Urban Pruning Activities

Valdirene Henrique Nunes, Flávio Cipriano de Assis do Carmo, Yasmim Yathiara Gomes Araújo Morais, Patrícia Carneiro Souto, Vinicius Staynne Gomes Ferreira, Hanne Alves Bakke, Pompeu Paes Guimarães, Giselle Lemos Moreira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45354

The pruning of urban trees is one of the practices used to adapt the projections of the branches to the inserted environment. The objective of this study was to analyze biomechanical factors such as posture and weight management in manual urban pruning activities in the city of Patos - Paraíba. The research was carried out with the employees responsible for the pruning activity of trees. For the posture analysis, the was use a photographic camera, followed by the movements and positions in each activity performed and then analyzed each shoot. The video was performed with the monitoring of the movements of the profile with the intention of observing the joints at the moment of work. For the biomechanical analysis, we used the weighing of the tools used, using a precision scale. The results showed that the highest percentage of the postures adopted in urban pruning activities, was considered adequate according to the OWAS method, obtaining a higher percentage of classes 1 and 2. However, the drag activity was the only classified in the class that requires measures as soon as possible and that risk may occur in the spine, so that corrective measures are necessary to implement it. Among all the activities analyzed, the knee and ankle joints presented a percentage of compression, due to the worker maintaining the flexed legs most of the time.