Open Access Original Research Article

Phosphate Fertilization of Low Size Castor Bean in Conventional and Narrow Cultivation in Second Cropping Season

Felipe dos S. de Oliveira, Doglas Bassegio, Andréia R. Ramos, Girlânio H. da Silva, Jackson da Silva, Maurício D. Zanotto, Dirceu M. Fernandes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45433

The oil present in the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) has several applications, especially its use in the production of biodiesel. Therefore, the aim of this work is the response of low size castor bean to rates of phosphorus in conventional and narrow cultivation in second cropping season. The experimental design was a randomized complete block (2 x 5) design with four replications, being two population densities and five rates of phosphorus. The evaluated population densities were 67,340 and 33,670 plants ha-1(conventional), and the phosphorus rates evaluated were 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of P2O5. The conventional cultivation resulted in higher stem diameter, plant height, number of racemo-1 grains, 100 grain mass, grain yield and oil yield. The number of racemes plant-1 was higher in the population density of 33,670 plants ha-1 when it was applied P. Phosphate fertilization contributed to increase grain yield (689 kg ha-1) and oil yield (311 kg ha-1), with a maximum technical efficiency rate of 80 kg ha-1 of P2O5. Castor bean sown in conventional cultivation with basic fertilization containing 80 kg ha-1 of P2O5 is a promising alternative for the second harvest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Heat Treated Jatropha Seed Cake-Based Diets on Performance and Blood Metabolites in Broiler Chickens

A. F. Agboola

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45597

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of heat treated Jatropha Seed Cake (JSC) on the performance, serum biochemistry and haematology of broiler broiler chicken over the period of 28 days feeding trial between March and April, 2015.

Two hundred one-week-old Arbor Acre broilers were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates having 10 chickens in each group. Chicks were fed diets containing JSC at 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15% dietary levels represented as treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively in a completely randomized design.

Performance indices were assessed. On day 28, blood sample was collected from the jugular vein of two birds per replicate for haematological and serum biochemical analyses. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at α0.05.

Results showed that highest weight gain (WG) (872.1g/b) was recorded for birds on the control diet while the least WG (553.98g/b) was for birds on 15% JSC diet. Meanwhile, birds on 5 and 10% JSC had similar final weight and WG. Identical feed intake was observed in birds on 5, 10 and 15% JSC diets which was significantly (P =.05) lower than what was recorded for birds on the control diet. Feed conversion ratio of birds on the control diet, 5 and 10% JSC-based diets were (P =.05) improved as compared to those on 15% JSC diet. There was no mortality recorded for birds on the dietary treatments. There were no significant differences observed in the blood metabolites of birds on the experimental diets.

In conclusion, body weight gain and feed intake of birds on heat treated jatropha seed cake decreased as the level of JSC increases across the diets, but this did not elicit any deleterious effect on the birds. Jatropha seed cake can therefore be considered as a potential feed resource in broiler nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Watershed as Planning Parameter for the Distribution of Royalties of Hydroelectric Power Plants

Lucas de Arruda Viana, Delly Oliveira Filho, Carlos Antônio Álvares Soares Ribeiro, Deborah Campos Tomaz

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45939

The present distribution system of resource compensation for water use is a procedure that compensates Brazilian municipalities and states whose land is flooded by the dam of a hydroelectric power plant with installed capacity higher or equal to 30 MW. The Constitution of 1988 states that all municipalities that contribute to the production of electric energy are eligible to obtain a share in the  economic results of the exploitation of water resources for energy generation, and not only those municipalities whose land has been flooded. Therefore, this paper proposes a new methodology for the distribution of royalties by the installation of hydroelectric power plants. We obtained the upstream watershed limits of 45 MW hydropower plant the power plant dam, determined the participation area of each municipality that belongs to it and we obtained the data of distribution of royalties by the Camargos hydroelectric power plants in 2015.The software QGis 2.18.13 was using to data processing.  The current form of financial compensation apportionment to the municipalities benefits only those whose land has been flooded. The new methodology proposed for royalty distribution is based on the General Equation of the Electric Power Generated. The methodology proposed in this paper also compensates the municipalities of the watershed, whose land has not been flooded.  Besides, it enables all municipalities of a given watershed to receive resources for the preservation of their water and soil, thus promoting energy security in Brazil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Packaging Materials on Insect Mortality and Aflatoxin Contamination in Stored Maize under Different Conditions

S. K. Awuah, P. Kumah, P. K. Tandoh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45958

Postharvest losses in stored maize is alarmingly huge due to destructive storage pests. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effectiveness of different packaging materials for the protection of stored maize against infestation by maize weevils under different storage conditions. A 2×2×2 factorial experiment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications was used. Obaatanpa maize variety was packaged in triple-layer hermetic and standard woven polypropylene bags. Half of each treatment samples were then artificially infested with 20 live Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and the other half with 20 live Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) before being stored under ambient (28.5°C, 73.53%RH) and simulated hot (37.7°C, 48.64%RH) environment for 6 months. From the results, the triple layer hermetic bags could significantly (p0.01) lower population growth and greatly increase mortality of P. truncatus and S. zeamais during storage than woven polypropylene. Under both ambient and simulated hot storage environment, aflatoxin count was significantly (p0.01) worse in woven polypropylene packaging (16.39%) than in the triple layer hermetic bags (3%). The P. truncatus was found to be more destructive (26.26%) than S. zeamais (14.03%). It can be concluded that Triple layer packaging bags could be used for maize storage in both ambient and hot storage environment, protecting it against insect infestation, aflatoxin infestation and maintaining the quality of maize without the need for insecticide use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Combining Ability and Gene Actions in Maize for Grain Yield and Selected Agronomic Traits under Contrasting Soil Nitrogen Conditions

Dotun J. Ogunniyan, Oloruntoba O. Olakojo, Mercy O. Olowolafe, Opeyemi A. Agbeleye

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45162

Background: High cost, cropping pressure on soil and climate change are currently posing constraint to maize production in Africa. Development of, and genetic studies on adapted varieties of the crop might be useful to overcome the challenge.

Aim: To determine combining ability and gene actions of the maize inbred lines in their crosses under contrasting nitrogen conditions.

Materials and Methods: 150 hybrid maize generated from 20 inbred lines were evaluated in 2014 and 2015 in low and optimal N conditions in an experiment laid out in 19 × 8 lattice design with three replicates. Days to anthesis (DTA) and days to silking (DTS) were counted. Anthesis-silking-interval (ASI) and grain yield (GY) were estimated. Plant and ear heights were measured while stay green (SG), plant aspect (PASP) and ear aspect (EASP) were scored. Analysis of variance was performed on the data collected. The general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and relative contribution of GCA and SCA on progeny for agronomic performance were also estimated.

Results: Significant differences existed due to environments, genotypes, male, female and female × male for GY and other traits. Only BD74-171, BD74-179, BD74-170 and BD74-175 had significant high GCA effects for GY under low N. The BD74-128, BD74-171, TZEI188, BD74-55, TZEI1, BD74-179, BD74-175 and BD74-399 had significant GCA effects under optimal N. Only 23 of the 150 hybrids had significant high SCA in at least one of the N conditions. From these, 14 and 15 hybrids had high positive and significant SCA in low and optimal N conditions, respectively. The GCA and SCA varied for all the traits signifying prominence of both additive and non-additive genetic components.

Conclusion: Inheritance of GY, DTA, DTS and SG are governed by non-additive gene action but vice versa for PH and EH under both N conditions. Effects of male were greater than those of female in gene expression for the GY under the N conditions, but males were genetically diverse than females for the other traits in the low N condition. Effects of both male and female are important in inheritance of flowering and growth parameters under optimal N condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gravity Variation on the Growth of Wheat and Guinea Corn Seedlings

Olaniran E. Aluko, M. K. Onabowale

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/31325

In this study, the impact of gravity on plant growths was studied to determine the orientation of the roots and shoots under simulated microgravity using the clinostat. The experiment was performed with two local seeds-wheat (Triticum aestivum) and guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor).

The agar-agar solution prepared was evenly distributed into the petri dishes where nine seeds each of wheat and guinea corn was planted on four petri dishes. The petri dishes containing the seeds were cultivated in the wet chamber for about 20-30 hours. Three petri dishes were selected in the following order, 1g, 90o turned and clinorotated samples respectively. Five readings were taking at thirty minutes interval.

Data on plants growth were collected from photographs taken during the course of the experiments and analyzed using Image J software to measure the root curvature and growth rate.

The results show that the wheat has the longest root of about 4.2 cm at 90 minutes and Guinea corn 2.58 cm at 120 minutes. The growth rate of clinorotated wheat is 1.88 times that of guinea corn at 90 minutes while that of 1g remained the same. The speed of clinorotation did not affect growth of clinorotated wheat and guinea corn but growth rate of guinea corn was about 23% lower than wheat. The higher value of angle indicates a more pronounced curvature of the root therefore; wheat germinates faster than guinea corn in simulated microgravity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sample Size and Pearson’s Correlation on the Characteristics of the Crambe and Sunflower Plants

Layla Gerusa Souza Lima, Wendel Kaian Oliveira Moreira, Raimundo Leonardo Lima de Oliveira, Samara Ketely Almeida de Sousa, Raimundo Thiago Lima da Silva, Lucila Elizabeth Fragoso Monfort, Wanderson Cunha Pereira, Gabriela Mourão de Almeida, Euzanyr Gomes da Silva, Luiz Felipe Oliveira Rêgo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/45942

Aims: Determine the sample size and the Pearson correlation between the characteristics of the crambe and sunflower plants.

Study Design: Samples were collected from 108 crambe and sunflower plants.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at the Federal Rural University of Amazonia from November 2014 to February 2015.

Methodology: The data for 108 plants was subjected to a descriptive analysis of each variable and, subsequently, the sample size was estimated (η), with a mid-range of the confidence intervals of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the average (m) and a 95% coefficient of confidence.  The sample size was obtained through the expression tα/2 , which it is the critical value of the Student t distribution, whose area, on the right, is the same as α/2, thus, the value of t, such that P[t>tα/2]=α/2, with (n-1) degrees of freedom, with (α>5%)of margin of error, and s2 is the variance estimate.

Results: The analyzed data displayed relatively high coefficients of variation for some parameters, while the number of grains of the lower raceme and the number of grains of the higher raceme demonstrated superior dispersal data for the crambe. For the sunflower, the number of seeds by section, and the mass of the section with and without seeds displayed high variability, and consequently, higher sampling demand numbers. Supplementary relevant points were that there were strong correlations between the mass of the section without seeds as opposed to the mass of the section with seeds.

Conclusion: Of the characteristics of the crambe and sunflower plants that were observed, the sample sizes required are larger than the ones analyzed here in order to properly estimate the parameters and Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Fungitoxic Potential of Copaiba and Eucalyptus Essential Oils on Phytopathogens

Lídia Pinheiro da Nóbrega, Kevison Romulo da Silva França, Tiago Silva Lima, Flávia Mota de Figueredo Alves, Andressa Lacerda Nóbrega Ugulino, Aguinaldo Matias da Silva, Tiago Augusto Lima Cardoso, Ana Paula Medeiros Rodrigues, Antônio Francisco de Mendonça Júnior

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/46083

Aims: This study evaluates the in vitro fungitoxic effect of copaiba (Copaifera sp.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.) essential oils on the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum musae.

Study Design: The experiments comprised completely randomized designs with seven treatments and five replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out at the Center for Agrifood Science and Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Pombal, Brazil, from July to August 2018.

Methodology: Essential oils were incorporated into PDA culture medium (Potato-Dextrose-Agar) and poured into Petri dishes. The treatments consisted of four oil concentrations (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0%), a negative control (0.0%) and two positive controls (the fungicides Thiram and Mancozeb). The fungi were inoculated on plates and incubated for seven days at 27±2°C. The diameter of the colonies was measured every day and use to calculate the percentage of mycelial growth inhibition (PGI) and index of mycelial growth speed (IMGS).

Results: Copaiba and eucalyptus oils reduced the mycelial growth of A. alternata and C. musae in all concentrations. The copaiba oil showed a moderate inhibition, with mean percentages ranging from 26.6 to 33.68% for A. alternata and 39.5 to 49.6% for C. musae. The eucalyptus oil showed high inhibition, with means ranging from 30.0 to 79.7% for A. alternata and 35.6 to 66.3% for C. musae. The concentrations 0.8 and 1.0% had the highest inhibition values in both oils treatments, but these inhibitions were lower than the ones caused by the fungicides. The eucalyptus oil at 1.31% could totally inhibit A. alternata, but in all other cases, the oils were unable to cause total inhibition.

Conclusion: Copaiba and eucalyptus oils inhibit the mycelial growth of A. alternata and C. musae under in vitro conditions. Concentrations of 0.8 and 1.0% provided the highest inhibitory effect.