Introduction: Sesame has an elevated productive potential especially in semiarid areas. However, these areas present abiotic factors that limit the production of agricultural cultures, and one of them is the salinity level.
Objectives: To evaluate the phytomass and production of sesame plants submitted to soil salinity and nitrogen fertilization.
Place and Duration of the Study: The experiment was conducted in the months of December 2016 to April 2017, in an experimental area belonging to the Federal University of Campina Grande, in the Science and Food Technology Center, located in the municipal district of Pombal, Paraíba.
Methodology: The treatments were composed of five salinity levels of saturation extract (0.9; 1.7; 2.5; 3.3 and 4.1 dS m-1) and five doses of nitrogen (40; 70; 100; 130 and 160%), constituting a factorial 5x5, with three repetitions and with a experimental design of randomized blocks. The cultivar employed was the BRS silk, whose sowing was made in 18-liter polypropylene vases filled with 22 kg of local soil. One hundred and ten days after the sowing process, the following parameters were analyzed: aerial part dry mass, root dry mass and total dry mass, electric conductivity of the saturation extract, number of fruits, fruit mass and seed mass.
Results: There was a significant effect for all analyzed variables. The salinity level of the soil was inversely proportional to the sesame production.
Conclusion: High doses of nitrogen reduce the culture’s yielding and potentiate the deleterious effects of the soil’s salinity. The nitrogen fertilization at 70% of the recommended values was the best to reduce the saline stress in the studied conditions.
The health of any child depends greatly on immunization against certain diseases especially at the early stage of development. Adequate immunization of children serves as a means of preventing them from possible childhood diseases and various health challenges. The study therefore examined factors affecting children immunization among rural farmers in Ondo state, Nigeria. Simple random sampling was used to collect data from 90 respondents. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used in analysing the data. The study revealed that 92.2 percent of the respondents were females. The mean age was 45 years and 63.5 percent were above 40 years. About 76.7 percent were married, 73.6 percent had formal education and 70 percent were farmers by primary occupation. The study also showed that the respondents were aware of children immunization from different sources, which include media sources, personal knowledge, rallies and campaigns, while very few respondents were not aware. The study indicated that the respondents agreed that factors such as; access to information/media, mother’s educational level, farmers age, gender, farmers experience, availability of drugs and vaccines to a great extent influences the acceptance of children immunization while factors such as Inadequate capital, fear of side effects and unwanted/teenage pregnancy contributes tremendously to the rejection of children immunization.
Considering the importance of sunflower crop and its versatility in the world market, this study aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of sunflower seeds subjected to different doses of biostimulant (0.009% kinetin, 0.005% indolebutyric acid and 0.005% gibberellic acid) under stress conditions. The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Viçosa, using the cultivar Hélio 250. The studied factors consisted of biostimulant doses (0, 2, 3, and 5 mL kg-1), water retention capacities (40, 60 and 90%), and osmotic potentials (0.0, -0.2 and -0.4 MPa). Seeds were pre-soaked with solutions of 0.009% kinetin, 0.005% indolebutyric acid and 0.005% gibberellic acid for 4 hours and then tested for germination and vigour. The study was divided into three trials: 1. Biostimulant x field capacity; 2. Biostimulant x osmotic potential; both in a completely randomised design (CRD), with factorial scheme 5x3; and 3. Biostimulant x Temperature, in CRD, with a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement and four replications. After collection, data were tested by Analysis of Variance and regression in the statistical program SISVAR. Under the water and osmotic stress conditions, the biostimulant action was maximised, demonstrating superior performance in the doses of 3 and 4 mL. There was an increase for both the dry mass of the root at all doses of the biostimulant and for the dry mass of the area part in potentials -0.2 and - 04 in the use of PEG6000. The stress given by PEG 6000 promoted an increase in the dry mass of the root in all the doses of the biostimulant, and for the dry matter of the aerial part, there was a progressive increase of the potentials -0.2 and -0.4.
Aimed at improving the physical and chemical attributes of the substrates for seedling production, several agro-industrial wastes have been used. One of the waste with a potential of substrate incorporation is the charcoal waste. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing doses of charcoal waste (CW) on the production of papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L.). The experimental design was a randomized block design, as an experimental model. The treatments were composed of 5 (five) concentrations of CW added to earthworm humus based on volume, and the following treatments were evaluated: T1: 100% earthworm humus + 0% CW (control); T2: 97.5% humus + 2.5% CW; T3: 92.5% humus + 7.5% CW; T4: 85% humus + 15% CW and T5: 70% humus + 30% CW. Each of the 5 (five) treatments had 4 (four) replicates (blocks). The evaluations consisted of plant height measurement, collection diameter, root length, dry mass of leaves and roots, and Dickson quality index. Regression models were adjusted (P <0.05) to treatments with increasing levels of CW. CW doses around 10% promoted better results of collection diameter, root length and root dry mass. For the other variables, CW doses around 13% promoted the best results. It is believed that the addition of CW promoted significant improvements in earthworm humus; however, high doses promoted an elevation of pH at levels considered critical for the availability of some nutrients for the crop. In general, the best values obtained for the analysed variables were those in which about 9.25% to 14.25% of the CW addition to the humus used.
The present work aims to evaluate the ripening of the banana under the effect of choking and calcium carbide. The experiment was carried out with banana fruits "Silver", harvested at the Production Unit of IFPE - Campus Vitória de Santo Antão. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomised design, containing 3 treatments (T1: Witness, T2: Use of calcium carbide, T3: Smothering) and 3 replicates. The analyses were carried out in the Laboratory of Physical and Chemical Analysis of the same institution, in February 2014. The fruits were subjected to titratable acidity and soluble solids analyses. Analyses were carried out at 1, 48 and 96 hours after application of the treatments. In the analysis of the soluble solid contents done in the first hour after the application of the experiment, only the control treatment and that of the bananas subjected to the carbide treatment were different from the others state values. The bananas conditioned to choking were the treatment that had the highest concentration of soluble solid state values, followed by the banana with carbide and the control. At 96 hours there was no significant difference between treatments. In the analysis of the soluble solid’s contents done in the first hour after the application of the treatments, only the control treatment and that of bananas subjected to the carbide were different from the others. The banana undergoes several metabolic changes during the maturation process that can be observed by the parameters measured in the tests carried out in this experiment. In the treatment where the bananas were subjected to the action of the carbide, there was an increase in the rate of titratable acidity and an acceleration in its maturation. Meanwhile, in the treatment where the fruits were conditioned to choking at the end of their maturation, they had higher concentrations of soluble solid.