Open Access Original Research Article

Landscape Ecology and Geotechnologies as Tools for the Management of Biological Conservation

Giselle Lemos Moreira, Emmanoella Costa Guaraná Araujo, Paullyne Charllotte Gonçalves Celestino, Thiago Cardoso Silva, Thiago CardosoVanessa Sousa da Silva, Ana Lícia Patriota Feliciano

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/43641

Tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest, are among the most relevant forest formations regarding the provision of environmental ecosystem services, however, after centuries of human expansion, most of the Atlantic Forest is reduced to forest patches. This work aimed to map and analyse the landscape structure of the Atlantic Forest remnants in the city of Goiana, PE, Brazil. For that, metric indexes of landscape ecology were used, with the description of the spatial elements that determine the existing ecological processes and their importance on biological conservation in an Atlantic Forest patch, located in the municipality of Goiana, PE, Brazil. The native vegetation remnants map was obtained through supervised classification process, using images from LANDSAT 8 sensor, in the QGIS 2.18.9 computational application, and the SCP (Semi-Automatic Classification Plugin) with the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The landscape ecology analysis was performed in the ArcGIS 10.1 software, aided by the Vector-based Landscape Analysis Tools Extension (V-LATE) 2.0 beta. The native vegetation fragmentation was related to the size class which they belong, observing the landscape ecology indexes for each class to compare the vegetation patches conservation degree and size. That way, the map of the native vegetation occupied areas for the year of 2017 was obtained, with 241 patches being identified, of which approximately 45% were classified as very small patches. Therefore, it was noticed that there is a high degree of fragmentation in that region that can lead to the reduction of biodiversity. The smaller patches also presented higher edge density and greater edge effect. In relation to the proximity, when analysed together and with no size class distinction, the degree of isolation decreased dramatically, which indicates the importance of the smaller patches for the landscape and the ecological processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Individual and Competitive Adsorption of Copper, Zinc and Lead in Soils with Contrasting Texture

Larissa Kummer, Morgana Suszek Gonçalves, Adriana Zemiani, Vander de Freitas Melo, Simone Damasceno Gomes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/43891

Waste is often disposed of in the soil, leading to contamination not only by a metal, but by two or more elements. The adsorption studies are a way of evaluating the behaviour of the different metals when in contact with the soils. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adsorption of Cu, Zn and Pb, in an individual and competitive system, in soils with contrasting texture. To achieve the goals, two types of soils, typical of the state of Paraná (PR), Brazil were used. One of the samples (Soil A) were collected in the city of Francisco Beltrão, classified as a typical dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol) and the other (Soil B) were collected in the city of São Pedro do Paraná in the region of Paranavaí, classified as a Red-Yellow Argisol Abruptic eutrophic. The soils were characterised by chemical, granulometric, and mineralogical analyses. The metals adsorption were tested by the batch method. With these results, adsorption parameters derived from the Langmuir and Freündlich models were obtained. The adequacy of the Langmuir and Freündlich equations to the adsorption results did not occur in all situations but was satisfactory. Pb presented the highest values of maximum adsorption capacity estimated by the Langmuir model. Simultaneous adsorption reduced the adsorption of the three metals, with the highest reductions observed for Zn. Zn’s lower competitive power, evidenced by the reduction of its adsorption capacity in the presence of other metals, makes this element very worrisome in more weathered tropical soils, since it indicates a greater predisposition of this element to the movement in the profile or in superficial waters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Quality Changes of Young Cladodes of "Mexican Elephant Ear" Minimally Processed during Refrigerated Storage

Tainah Horrana Bandeira Galvão, Franciscleudo Bezerra da Costa, Ana Marinho do Nascimento, Yasmin Lima Brasil, Álvaro Gustavo Ferreira da Silva, Kátia Gomes da Silva, Kalinne Passos dos Santos, Jéssica Leite da Silva, Márcio Santos da Silva, Giuliana Naiara Barros Sales, Tatiana Marinho Gadelha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44273

Objective: The study aims to assess the physical-chemical quality of minimally processed young cladodes of the ‘Mexican elephant ear’ palm over the course of 10 days in storage.

Experimental Design: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with analyses executed on the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days, with five recurrences utilized.

Place and Duration of the Study: the experiment took place at the Chemistry, Biochemistry and Food Analysis of the Agrifood Science and Technology Center – CCTA of the Federal University of Campina Grande – UFCG, Pombal campus, Paraíba in a period between November 1st and November 11, 2018.

Methodology: A tertiary and quaternary young palm cladodes were harvested at 30 days of age, ranging from 14 to 20cm. The cladodes were taken to the Chemistry Biochemistry and Food Analysis of the Agrifood Science and Technology Center where they were minimally processed and stored in expanded polystyrene trays, wrapped with a layer of PVC film (12µm) at 4±1ºC and 40±5% RH.

Results: During storage, there was a decrease of 10.4% in accumulated fresh mass and an increase of 30% in phenolic compounds in young cladodes of the palm. Probably this result is related to the stress provoked by the minimal processing in which the tissue subject to cutting has physiologically adapted to the healing process.

Conclusion: The increase in the phenolic compounds in young cladodes operates as a protection response strategy to the plant tissue, and do a major role in the functional characteristics when the young cladodes are consumed as a non-conventional edible plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post Harvest Quality of Bt Green Maize Produced in Different Water Harvesting Techniques with the Application of Rooting

Ana Marinho do Nascimento, Franciscleudo Bezerra da Costa, Jéssica Leite da Silva, Marcos Eric Barbosa Brito, Tatiana Marinho Gadelha, Luciano Jonatas Gomes Frade, Luderlândio de Andrade Silva, Anderson Formiga dos Santos, Kátia Gomes da Silva, Márcio Santos da Silva, Larissa de Sousa Sátiro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44250

Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics of Bt green maize produced in different water harvesting techniques using two concentrations of commercial rooting.

Experimental Design: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design using the 2x3 factorial scheme. In the first factor, two levels of the Avant® rooting were tested, based on the manufacturer's recommendation, ie 0 and 125%. The second factor corresponds to three techniques of soil preparation, being: basins (B), ridges (C) and grooves (S).

Place and Duration of the Study: The experiment was conducted from July to September in the experimental area of the Center of Science and Technology Agrifood of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus of Pombal, Paraíba, Brasil.

Methodology: The spikes were selected for ten replicates and were analyzed with straw, then manually depleted for physical analysis. After the removal of the straws, the grains were cut with the help of a stainless steel knife and crushed in a blender for chemical analysis.

Results: The interaction between the different techniques of water uptake and rooting levels had a significant effect on the variables: fresh mass of straw with no straw, length, basal diameter, number of grains, electrolyte extravasation, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, where the catchment systems of basin and roosts with rooting proved to be more efficient.

Conclusion: The techniques of catchment basin and rows with rooting obtained better characteristics in the spikes, indicating that the roots of the plants in these systems reached a greater amount of water in the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Diets with Total or Partial Replacement of Tridax procumbens by Bamboo (Bambusa arundinancea) Leaves

Oluwakamisi Festus Akinmoladun, Victor Adejoro, Adewumi Jimoh

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/34863

Aim: The evaluation of performance parameters and carcass characteristics of rabbits fed diets with various ratios of bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea) and Tridax procumbens leaves.

Study Design: A completely randomized design was applied.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out at the rabbitry unit, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Adekunle Ajasin University between May and August 2016 and lasted for a period of 70-days.

Methodology: 36 weaned mixed sex rabbits with an average weight of 1075g were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments of 6 rabbits (3 does and 3 bucks) per treatment. Apart from the concentrate feed (50%), freshly harvested B. arundinancea and T. procumbens leaves were offered to the animals at 2% of their live weight at the ratio of 0:0 (T1), 100:0 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 50:50 (T4), 25:75 (T5) and 0:100 (T6). Proximate analysis of the experimental leaves and concentrate diets were carried out at the end of the trial. Performance parameters (final live weight (g), weight gain (g/d) and feed conversion efficiency (gain/intake)), dry matter intake of experimental leaves and of concentrate diets were also recorded.

Results: The use of leaves in the rabbits’ diets had no significant effect (P>.05) on final live weight, total dry matter intake and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE). Significant effect (P<.05) was observed in total and average weight gain of rabbits fed with the forage diets. Non-significant effect (P>0.05) was observed in slaughter weight and dressing percentage between control (T1) and T2 (100% bamboo leaves) group of rabbits. Liver, kidney and heart weights were not significantly different (P>0.05) between T2 and T6 groups. Addition of leaves in the diet of rabbits did not have a significant effect on the offal (head, blood and pelt) of rabbits.

Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that bamboo leaves, when combined with tridax leaves, up to 50% inclusion levels could be utilized as forages for feeding grower rabbits.