Open Access Original Research Article

Formation of Yellow Passion Fruit Seedlings under Different Substrates and Water Blades

Gisele Lopes dos Santos, Juliana Formiga Almeida, Adriana da Silva Santos, Valéria Fernandes de Oliveira Sousa, Cesenildo de Figueiredo Suassuna, Albanisa Pereira de Lima Santos, Evandro Franklin de Mesquita

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44381

Aim: To evaluate the influence of different substrates and water slides on the development of yellow passion fruit seedlings.

Study Design: This experiment was carried out from October to December 2017, at the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, in the Agro-Food Science and Technology Center, located in the city of Pombal, Paraíba.

Methodology: The treatments were constituted by four different substrates, these being Solo (control); Soil + bovine manure (S + BM); Soil + sheep manure (S + SM) and Soil + avian bed (S + AB), being associated to four water slides 40, 60, 80 and 100% of Real Evapotranspiration (ETr), determined from lysimetry of drainage from a 10% leaching fraction. The experimental design was a randomized block design, in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, with five replications.

Results: 60 days after transplanting, leaf area, number of leaves, diameter, height, dry mass of shoot and root, Dickson quality index and relative water content were evaluated. To which a significant effect was observed by the F test (P ≤0.01), of the different types of Substrates (S) and irrigation blades (B), as well as the interaction of these factors (SxB) for all variables studied, demonstrating that both factors simultaneously interfere in the production of passion fruit seedlings.

Conclusion: The S + AB substrate combined with the 100% ETr blade promoted the best yield under the seedling development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Resistance Induction in Zea mays L. Cultivars against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Kennedy Santos Gonzaga, Gemerson Machado de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Leite Alves, Izabela Nunes do Nascimento, Fábio Mielezrski, Jacinto de Luna Batista

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/43595

The maize crop Zea mays L., faces serious limitations in cultivation due to attack by the Spodoptera frugiperdaThe objective of this work was to evaluate the resistance induction in maize cultivars with Spodoptera frugiperda caterpillars due to the application of silicon (Si) and calcium (Ca) sources. Two cultivars of maize viz., Genotype A simple hybrid and the Creole Genotype B variety were used. These cultivars were submitted to two treatments of foliar fertilisation, calcium chloride and potassium silicate, and treatment without the application of an elicitor. The evaluations of the damages caused by the S. frugiperda caterpillar were carried out weekly, from the seventh day after the first application of the products (Si and Ca). In the bolting phase (VT), physiological evaluations of gas exchanges and fluorescence of chlorophyll a were carried out. For the Creole variety, there was a pre-dominance of plants that did not present any damage. The Creole variety presented the lowest mean of infestation by S. frugiperda, regardless of the product applied. No statistical differences were recorded between the products applied in each cultivar. The maximum quantum efficiency of FSII (FV/FM) was not statistically significant for the cultivars nor the cultivars x treatments interaction. For stomatal conductance (gs), a statistical difference between cultivars was found. In the Creole Genotype B variety, superior results were obtained in relation to the simple hybrid. The TF variable did not present statistical difference between the evaluated cultivars. Different behaviours were observed in the transpiration variable (E) among the cultivars. In the Creole Genotype B variety when submitted to silicon application and in control, higher transpiration was obtained compared to the simple hybrid. The sources of silicon and calcium do not promote the induction of resistance to S. frugiperda in the studied variables. The Creole variety Genotype B of Zea mays suffers minor damage due to an infestation of S. frugiperda in relation to the Genotype A simple hybrid maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality of Fruits from Grafted Tahiti Lime (Citrus latifolia Tan) Irrigated with Waters of Different Salinities

Giuliana Naiara Barros Sales, Luderlândio de Andrade Silva, Juliana Formiga Almeida, Reginaldo Gomes Nobre, Franciscleudo Bezerra da Costa, Marcos Eric Barbosa Brito, Marcio Santos da Silva, Artur Xavier Mesquita de Queiroga, Ana Marinho do Nascimento, Jéssica Leite da Silva, Pedro Dantas Fernandes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44302

Objective: In order to evaluate the quality of Tahiti acid lime fruits grafted on rootstocks under saline waters.

Experimental Design: The experiment was set up using a randomized block design, corresponding to ten citrus combinations, relative to Tahiti acid lime grafted on ten genotypes, and two levels of saline water used in irrigation.

Place and Duration of the Study: The experiment was realised at the Agro-Food Science and Technology Center of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Pombal Campus, Paraíba, from February 2016 to February 2017.

Methods: Were studied ten combinations of genotypes of Tahiti acid lime, and two saline water, using a factorial scheme, with three replications. The ten citrus genotypes were composed by 9 genotypes from two progenies, being four genotypes from the TSKFL x [Poncirus trifoliata Beneke (TRBK)] added to the control ‘Rangpur Santa Cruz’ lime (LCRSTC) and two irrigation water salinity levels (0.3 dSm-1 and 3.0 dSm-1).

Results: When studying the analysed variables, can observe significant effects only for the genotype (G), when the variable pH was verified, and the salinity factor (S), when analysing the (dSm-1), numbers of locules, soluble solids (SS - %), titratable acidity (TA - %) and ascorbic acid (AA - mg 100 mL-1).

Conclusion: Citrus rootstocks did not differ in the chemical and physical characteristics of fruits with increased salinity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Irrigation Levels and Potassium Doses in the Growth of Sunflower Cultivated in Soil of the Brazilian Cerrado

Luana Glaup Araujo Dourado, Marcio Koetz, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Tonny José Araújo da Silva, Vanessa Mendes Rêgo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/43020

The chief limiting factor in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) development is water deficit. Besides the dearth of water, large amounts of mainly potassium (K) are essential for the favourable development and bountiful harvest of the culture. This study aimed to evaluate the growth of sunflower plants cv. SYN 042   cultivated in red Cerrado Oxisol with controlled irrigation levels and K doses. Randomized block design was selected in a 5x4 factorial scheme, administering 5 K doses (0, 40, 80, 160 and 240 mg dm-3 of K2O) and 4 different water replacement levels in the soil (75, 100, 125 and 150% of field capacity (FC)), with 4 replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: Plant height, stem diameter, Chlorophyll index,  inner and outer diameters of the chapter, and dry mass of the stem. When 150% water replacement level of field capacity was utilised, it induced an increase in the plant growth as observed in terms of stem diameter, inner and outer diameters of the chapter, plant height and stem dry mass. The K added as fertiliser significantly affected the plant height, inner and outer diameters of the chapter, SPAD (direct index chlorophyll content), and stem dry mass, during the assessment performed at 60 days post emergence. The sunflower plants displayed improved development when the irrigation levels and K doses were estimated in isolation. The 150% water replacement level of field capacity provided the best results of development and growth of sunflower in Oxisol of the Cerrado.

Open Access Original Research Article

Postharvest Quality of 'Prata Anã' Bananas Treated with Microalgae Coating

Ágda Malany Forte de Oliveira, Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha Araújo, Albert Einstein Mathias de Medeiros Teod, José Franciraldo de Lima, Eduardo Fernandes Queiroga de Freitas, José Jaciel Ferreira dos Santos, Bárbara Genilze Figueiredo Lima Santos, Elny Alves Onias, Marília Hortência Batista Silva Rodrigue, Kalinny de Araújo Alves, Luana Muniz Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44059

Aims: Biodegradable technologies comprise an innovative tool in the post-harvest treatment of fruits. They can maintain the food quality without harming consumer health and environment. This study tests the efficiency of microalgae as a coating for bananas of the 'Prata Anã' cultivar.

Study Design: We carried out a completely randomized experimental design with plots subdivided over time.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment occurred in the Laboratory of Fruit Postharvest Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Pombal, Paraíba, Brazil, during 10 days of storage.

Methodology: The following coatings were applied to the banana fruits: 0% (no coating); 2% of Chlorellasp.; 2% of Scenedesmus sp.; and 2% Spirulina platensis. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at 25 ±2°C and 65 ±5% RH and analysed every two days for 10 days.

Results: The characteristics of bananas differed among treatments at the sixth and eighth days of storage. The colour of bark and pulp showed an increase of the parameter a* and reduction in brightness and hue angle over time. At the sixth day, fruits covered with Chlorella sp. showed 5.89% of mass loss of, firmness of 65.24 N, 0.60% of malic acid, 25.50% of soluble solids, 21.73 SS/TA ratio, and 8.27% of total sugars, showing retardation fruit ripening.

Conclusion: The microalgae Spirulina platensisChlorella sp., and Scenedesmus sp. used at 2% in the coating of 'Prata Anã' bananas delayed ripening, maintained pulp firmness, and decreased fresh mass loss, extending fruit conservation to eight days. Untreated fruits ripened fast, lost significant fresh weight, and softened.