Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties for Resistance to Anthracnose

G. J. Kiptoo, E. E. Arunga, S. K. Kimno

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/26326

French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a very important protein component of the diets of the majority of the population globally and in Kenya. It is a major vegetable export crop (48%) and income earner to the smallholder farmers who constitute more than 80% of producers in Kenya.  However commercial varieties presently grown have the potential to produce more yields of above 1800 kgha-1 but are limited by pests and disease. Among the diseases is anthracnose incited by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum ( magn.) Lams. Scrip which causes a severe rapidly developing disease that can bring about complete plant defoliation and extensive yield and or quality loss. Studies were conducted to identify commercial varieties of French beans which are resistant to anthracnose disease. The objective of this study was to screen commercial varieties of French beans in controlled environmental conditions (glasshouse) for resistance to anthracnose disease. This was achieved through evaluation of incidence and phenotypic variation in anthracnose virulence among the bean varieties in relation to yields. Ten bean varieties were used during the study, among them were two controls; Julia, Andate, Amy, Organdia, Mara, Serengeti (resistant control), Venda (susceptible control), Conza, Strada and MuH13. The experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. A scale of 1-9 score was used to rate the disease reaction, which was subdivided into; 1-2 (resistant), 3-4(moderate), 5-9(susceptible). Data collected were subjected to ANOVA using SAS program version 9.1. Results exhibited three bean varieties (Julia, MuH13 and Organdia) to have high significant resistance to anthracnose and one variety (Strada) to be tolerant. The study therefore suggests the use of desirable resistant varieties as the best way of increasing yields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical Characterization, Chemistry and Bioactive Compounds in Noni Fruit Harvested in Three Maturation Stages

Larissa de Sousa Sátiro, Franciscleudo Bezerra da Costa, Jéssica Leite da Silva, Ana Marinho do Nascimento, Mahyara de Melo Santiago, Kalinne Passos dos Santos, Kátia Gomes da Silva, Sabrina Vieira de Sousa, Giuliana Naiara Barros Sales, Tatiana Marinho Gadelha

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44816

Objective: The objective was to determine the physical, physicochemical and bioactive compounds of noni fruits harvested at three maturation stages.

Experimental Design: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, where the treatments were composed of three stages of maturation (green, pre-mature and mature), with five replicates containing two fruits each, totalling 10 fruits for each maturation stage.

Place of Study: the experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Food Analysis of the Center for Food Science and Technology - CCTA, Federal University of Campina Grande - UFCG, Pombal campus, Paraíba.

Methodology: After sorting, the fruits were sanitised in running water to remove surface dirt and perform the physical, physicochemical and bioactive compounds analyses.

Results: it was observed the irregular growth and oval shape of the fruits. Based on the physical-chemical analysis and bioactive compounds, it is verified that the maturation stage interferes with the quality of noni fruits. 

Conclusion: The high levels of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, especially in mature fruit, indicate the potential use of this fruit for the production of functional foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Repercussions of the Level of Shading and the Type of Container in the Seedling Stage on the Growth of Irrigated and Non-irrigated Coffee Plants in the Field

Maria Christina Junger Delôgo Dardengo, Lucas Rosa Pereira, Elias Fernandes de Sousa, Edvaldo Fialho dos Reis

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/42345

The present investigation aims to evaluate the vegetative and reproductive growth along with the root distribution of irrigated and non-irrigated coffee plants, obtained from seedlings formed in two containers under different levels of shading. For this purpose, the experiments were carried out at the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Alegre Campus, in field conditions. With the intention of assessing the vegetative and reproductive development of branches, various features of the plants were evaluated such as (i) the growth of the orthotropic branch, (ii) growth of plagiotropic branches, (iii) number of flowers revenged by plagiotropic branch, (iv) number of nodes, (v) number of fruits per node, (vi) number of fruits per branch, (vii) fruit aborted per branch, (viii) fresh fruit mass per branch, (ix) internodes, production, and (x) yield. Additionally, the estimation of the roots was carried out at four different depths: (a) 0-10 cm, (b) 10-20 cm, (c) 20-30 cm, and (d) 30-40 cm. Apart from root depths, the root surface area, diameter, and length were also analysed. In response to the above experiments, the irrigated plants exhibited a higher number of (1) nodes, (2) flowers set, (3) fruits per plagiotropic branch, and per node, in addition to, higher yield per plant. Also, a better distribution of the root system in the soil profile, with a higher root concentration in the 0-20 cm layer was found to occur due to irrigation. The total numbers of fine roots were found to be more superior in the case of irrigated plants than rainfed plants. On the other hand, shading used in seedling production was found to exhibit its effect only on the root diameter of irrigated plants. However, the type of container used in the seedling formation exerted no influence on the growth of branches and development of roots of conilon coffee.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Base Saturation on Growth and Yield Parameters of Alfalfa Cultivated in Soil of Brazilian Cerrado

Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Camila Thaiana Rueda da Silva, Thiago Henrique Ferreira Matos Castañon, William Fenner, Ana Paula Alves Barreto Damasceno

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44592

Alfalfa, considered one of the most important forage worldwide, requires a base saturation in the soil of approximately 80%, and this is a factor that can limit the expansion of cultivation of this crop in tropical soils that are predominantly acidic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of base saturation levels on the development of alfalfa in soil of the Brazilian Cerrado. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse, whose experimental units consisted of plastic pots with a capacity of 2 dm3. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with six treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of six levels of base saturation (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110%). The cultivar used was Medicago sativa L. cv. Creole. The evaluated variables were chlorophyll index, number of leaves, number of tillers, stem diameter, plant height, dry shoot mass, root dry mass and root volume. Increases in leaf number, stem diameter, shoot height, dry mass and root volume of alfalfa were observed due to the increase of base saturation in the soil. The base saturation from 80% was the one that provides better development and greater alfalfa production in Cerrado.

Open Access Review Article

Performance of Lettuce Cultivars of Inoculum of Nematode

Islan Diego Espindula de Carvalho, José Luiz Sandes de Carvalho Filho, Carla Caroline Alves Pereira, Djayran Sobral Costa, Suzanny Maria de Andrade Oliveira Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44543

Lettuce is the hardwood vegetable that presents the greatest increase of consumption in Brazil, and therefore the most important for local horticulture. Because the intensity of cultivation, and the large area planting, some problems have worsened, especially issues related to pathogens such as nematodes of the species Meloidogyne incognita, which penetrate to the root AND CAUSING reduction in productivity. Existing cultivars on the market have more or less able to tolerate the nematodes attack, depending on growing conditions and climate conditions which are subject. In addition to these factors, the actual population of nematodes is a determining factor to harm the yield of lettuce. The cultivars used were Solaris©, Elba©, Amanda©, SRV 2005©, subjected to two of inoculum  nematode M. incognita, 10,000 eggs / plant and 20,000 eggs / plant, and a control without the presence nematodes. The experimental arrangement used was the randomized block design in a factorial (4 x 3) with 4 replications. Plants were harvested 48 days after planting and evaluated the Fresh weight of shoots (FWS), Number of leaves (NS), Head diameter (HD), Stem diameter (SD), Stem length (SL), Fresh root mass (FRM), - Average number of eggs (ANE), and Reproduction factor (RF). Cultivar SRV 2005 has the potential to be used in areas with the presence of Meloidogyne incognita (race 1), and can be used as a potential source of resistance to the pathogen. The initial innoculation of eggs did not affect the interaction of the genotype with the final concentration of Meloidogyne incognita eggs (Race 1). The initial number of 20,000 eggs promoted a higher average number of eggs at the end of the crop cycle, but the reproduction factor presented a decrease in the final number of eggs with approximately 14,000 units.