Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Inter-row and Intra-row Spacing on Phenological Characters of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) Varieties in Semi-arid Region of North-Western Nigeria

A. J. Augustine

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/13986

Aims: Field trials were conducted at the research farm of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria during the wet seasons of 2006 and 2007 to investigate the effect of inter-row and intra-row spacing on the growth and phenological characters of cowpea varieties in semi-arid region of north-western Nigeria.

Study Design: Randomised Complete Block Design was used with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiments were carried out during the 2006 and 2007 rainy seasons at Institute for Agricultural Research farm Samaru in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (Lat. 07°38°E, long. 11°11°N and altitude 686 m).

Methodology: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of three inter-rows spacing (60, 75 and 90 cm) and three intra-row spacing (20, 25 and 30 cm) on the performance of two cowpea varieties (SAMPEA 6 and SAMPEA 8). Experimental field was subjected to standard agronomic practices and factorial treatments where tested on growth and phenological characters (stand establishment count, plant height, canopy spread, number of branches, 50% flowering, 50% physiological maturity and yield).

Results: The results showed that inter-row spacing and intra-row spacing had no significant effect (P>0.05) on most of the vegetative growth attributes and phenological characters assessed. However, inter-row spacing and intra-row spacing had significant effect (P<0.05on stand establishment count. Every increase in inter-row spacing (60 cm to 90 cm) and intra-row spacing (20 cm to 30 cm) was accompanied with a corresponding decrease in stand establishment count in all the years and the mean. SAMPEA 6 performed better than SAMPEA 8 in all the characters measured which could be attributed to the genotype of the varieties used.

Conclusion: Inter-row spacing of 60 cm and intra-row spacing of 20 cm and SAMPEA 6 is recommended for cultivation in semi-arid region of north-western Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on the Evaluation of a High Speed Tagging Device for Nile Tilapia Stock Assessment in the Vunania Dam in Kassena-Nankana District, Upper East Region

Yakubu Abdul-Razak, Emmanuel O. Kombat

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/15803

The study on the evaluation of a high speed tagging device for Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) stock assessment was conducted in the Vunania dam in the Kasena-Nankana District of the Upper East Region of Ghana for two months(April- May 2014). A total of 49 Nile tilapia fishes were obtained during the period of study. Out of this number 28 were males and 21 were females representing 57.1% and 42.9% respectively. In the research the females Oreochromis niloticus had a range of 11 cm to 20 cm total length with a standard deviation of 2.0998 and a weight range of 25 g to 140 g with a standard deviation of 28.7697. Males had a range of 11.30 cm to 16.8 cm with a standard deviation 1.4409 and a total weight range of 27 g to 110 g with a standard deviation of 18.4637. In totality the sampled Oreochromis niloticus had a minimum weight of 25 g and maximum of 140 g and a mean of 82.5, minimum length of 11 cm and a maximum of 20 cm and a mean of 15.5. MS222 at a dose of 0.3 g/l [23] was used for the sedation with a minimum sedation time of 12 sec and maximum time of 238 sec and a mean of 125, minimum recovery time of 27 sec and a maximum of 311 sec and a mean of 169, a minimum tagging time of 4sec and a maximum of 122 sec and mean of 63.

Open Access Original Research Article

Culture-dependent Microbiological, and Enzyme Properties of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Agricultural Soil in the Niger Delta

F. A. Orji, P. O. Okerentugba, A. A. Ibiene

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/24899

Culture-dependent microbiological and enzyme properties of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil were investigated in Choba, Port Harcourt- Nigeria. Standard biological science and physico-chemical procedures were adopted for all the analyses carried out. Conductivity and pH values of 177.30 µS/cm, and 5.95, respectively were observed in the polluted soil. Total Petroleum hydrocarbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus contents were 1127mg/kg, 6.52 mg/kg, 4.23 mg/kg, respectively. The effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) of the soil was 39.85 Kcal/mol, and the polluted Clay-Loamy soil had a redox potential of 78.70 mV. The polluted soil had a total culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi counts of 8.33 x 105cfu/g, and 8.9 X 10cfu/g, respectively. In the polluted soil, the activities of soil dehydrogenase, catalase, and urease were 0.088 µgINF/g/dwt/2h, 0.83 ml0 0.1 NKMnO4, and 6,013 µgNH4-N-dwt/2h, respectively. The hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in the polluted soil were: Burkholderia pyrrocinia, Burkholderia ambifera chDc 3361, Burkholderia cenocepacia ZYB002, Pseudomonas fluorescens hsw X151, Burkholderia sp. NTUIOB TPD9, and Bacillus badius. The hydrocarbon utilizing fungi isolated from the polluted soil include: Talaromyces flavusTalaromyces emersoniiTalaromyces wortomaniiCladosporium carioniiTalaromyces flavus, and Trichoderma polysporum. The study showed that petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the studied environment impacted on the physico-chemical and microbiological properties of the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meat Quality and Cholesterol Profile of Arbor Acres Broiler Chickens Raised with Routine Administration of Fluoroquinolones

O. A. Faleye

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/26611

Aims: The study was carried out to investigate the effect of routine administration of fluoroquinolones on meat quality and cholesterol profile of Arbor Acres broiler chickens.

Study Design: The experiment employed a complete randomized design; all data generated were subjected to analysis of variance, P=0.05.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, between February and April, 2014.

Methodology: One hundred and eighty unsexed one-day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in a 48-day study and the birds were distributed into four experimental treatments viz; control, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Birds were administered with 10 mg/kg body weight of the selected fluoroquinolones on week 2, 4 and 6 for 3 days. Birds in the control group received water without antibiotics throughout the experiment. A week withdrawal period was observed in order to reduce the antibiotics residue in the broiler meat before carrying out meat quality studies. At the end of the withdrawal period (day 48), two birds were slaughtered per replicate to evaluate carcass and meat characteristics.

Results: No significant (P≥0.05) differences were observed amongst the treatments for proximate composition and meat attribute parameters. However, the fluoroquinolones used in this study had higher chilling loss and cooking loss compared to the control which could be a challenge in meat processing industries. Norfloxacin group had the highest mean value for High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) (52.98±1.18) and lowest Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) (14.19±1.29).

Conclusion: Routine administration and adequate withdrawal period of fluoroquinolones could be effective in producing Arbor Acres broilers with excellent cholesterol profile and meat quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Studies of Morphological and Physiological Traits Associated with Drought and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth Tolerance in Maize (Zea mays L.) in the Guinea Savanna Agro-ecological Zone of Ghana

Alhassan Bawa, Isaac Kwahene Addai, Mashark Seidu Abdulai, Al-hassan Issahaku

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/26870

Aims: The present study aims to evaluate the parental and Fhybrid populations for yield, morphological and physiological traits under water-stressed and striga-infested conditions.

Study Design: Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) experiment with three replications was conducted at the experimental field of the Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI) at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana for duration of two consecutive years (2014-2015).

Results & Discussion: The study showed that a significantly high negative effect in GCA for the parent populations was recorded in TAIS03, KOBN03-OB, DT-STR-W-C2 and IWD-C3-SYN-F2 for majority of the traits. F1 hybrids, KOBN03 x DT, DT x TAIS03, TAIS03 x KOBN03, IWD x GUMA03, GUMA03 x DT, GUMA03 x SISF03 and SISF03 x TAIS03 showed a negative significant effect of SCA for most of the traits. A highly significant negative effects of GCA and SCA of parents and F1 hybrids for majority of raits showed that these genotypes were highly tolerant to drought and/ or Striga hermonthica. Negative values for GCA and SCA effects reveal a contribution to drought and/ or striga tolerant traits, while positive values for GCA and SCA effects indicate tendency towards drought and/ or striga sensitive.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the geographical areas (drought-prone or striga-infested) like guinea savanna, parent and F1 hybrid populations (TAIS03, KOBN03-OB, DT-STR-W-C2 and IWD-C3-SYN-F2) and (KOBN03 x DT, DT x TAIS03, TAIS03 x KOBN03, IWD x GUMA03, GUMA03 x DT, GUMA03 x SISF03 and SISF03 x TAIS03) respectively could be used for increased grain yield.