Effects of different land use (Arable land; Teak forest/plantation; Natural forest; Banana plantation; and Construction site) on hydraulic conductivity, penetration resistance and hydrological changes of soils was investigated in Akure, southwestern Nigeria. The field experiment was conducted during the rainy season of 2013 in five (5) different locations based on land use pattern. Six points (approximately 60 m apart) were randomly selected from each location for the collection of soil samples following a grid sampling pattern. Soil infiltration rates, penetration resistance, soil moisture content, bulk density and porosity of the sites were measured. Cone penetration resistance was determined at depths 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30 cm, while the soil moisture content and bulk density were determined at depths of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. Construction site demonstrated higher bulk density, higher penetration resistance and lower unsaturated hydraulic conductivity when compared with soils of other locations. Highest bulk density (1.88±0.06 g/cm3) was obtained at the soil surface layer of the construction corresponding to the highest penetration resistance value of 3.47 MPa. Strong and positive correlation was recorded between soil penetration resistance and bulk density within different land uses. The highest hydraulic conductivity was recorded under Natural forest with a mean value of 5.74 × 10-4 cms-1 and lowest (1.42 × 10-4 cms-1) in the Construction site. Results of the experiment provided the basis for proper selection, planning and implementation of land use schemes in the study area.
Aims: This feeding trial evaluates the blood characteristics and gut microbial count of broilers chicks fed Processed Dietary Fungi Treated Jatropha curcas Kernel Meals.
Study Design: All data generated were subjected to analysis of variance in a complete randomized design.
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, between November and December 2014.
Methodology: A total of one hundred and eighty Marshal strain Broiler chicks (n = 180) fed Aspergillus niger treated meals, namely: Raw Defatted Fermented Meal (RDFM), Toasted Defatted Fermented Meal (TDFM), Cooked Defatted Fermented Meal (CDFM), Lye treated Defatted Fermented Meal (LDFM) and Sand roasted Defatted Fermented Meal (ZDFM) were evaluated in a 21 day feeding trial. Six (6) dietary treatments were formulated such that Diet 1 contained 0% Jatropha curcas kernel Meal while diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 contained 10.33% (one-third replacement of soybean meal) inclusion level of RDFM, TDFM, CDFM, LDFM and ZDFM.
Results: The red blood cell, eosinophyll, basophyll, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume, alanine transaminase, cholesterol, triglyceride and acid phosphatase were significantly influenced (p<0.05) by the dietary treatments while the values obtained for lactobacilli count was higher than that of E. coli within the treatments in the gut of the birds.
Conclusion: Prolong exposure might posed serious health challenge to the birds. It can also be concluded that Lactobacillus thrived in the gut of the broiler chicks than E. coli, although the populations of both were reduced.
The present study was conducted at the Tissue culture Laboratory of Amhara Region Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI), Bahir Dar - Ethiopia during the period from May to June 2012 to investigate the effect of different concentrations of IAA and IBA on root regeneration of banana cv. Giant Cavendish. For rooting, individual shoots (3-6 cm) with 5-6 leaves were transferred to the MS medium supplemented with (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l) IAA and (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l) IBA for 4 weeks. Among the different concentrations, highest number of roots was produced by 0.5 mg/l IAA + 0.5 mg/l IBA (3.00, 4.67, and 6.67) 10, 20, and 30 DAI respectively. The longest roots observed was (2.83, 4.60, and 5.87 cm) at 10, 20, and 30 DAI respectively in concentration 0.5 mg/l IAA + 0.5mg/l IBA, which was statistically significant (P<0.05) at 10, 20, and 30 DAI.
Low crop responses to N and P fertilizer application among small holder farms are common phenomena in degraded acidic soils of western Kenya. An on-farm trial was established in Shianda sub-location in Mumias District, Western Kenya during two seasons in 2011 to determine the effect of inoculation (Bradyrhizobium japonicum), lime (CaCO3) and inorganic P (Single Super Phosphate) on soil chemical properties and yield components of soybean (Glycine max L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was a 23 factorial with 4 replicates laid out in a randomized complete block design giving a total of 32 plots. Experimental treatments were Lime (0 and 2.5 tons lime ha-1), P fertilizer (0 and 30 kg P ha-1) and Inoculation (soybean inoculation and no inoculation). Lime application at 2.5 t ha-1 led to a significant increase in soil pH from 4.85 to 5.58 (P=.05) after two cropping seasons. Increase in soil available P was in the order of lime > P > inoculation (9.35>6.50>5.10 mgkg-1). A combination of Lime + P + inoculation recorded the highest maize (4490 kgha-1, 3470 kgha-1) and soybean (970 kgha-1, 830 kgha-1) grain yields during the long rain (1st) and short rain (2nd) seasons respectively. Sole P treatment gave higher average number of nodules per plant and average plant biomass, (7.7 and 21.8 g) respectively than both sole inoculation (4.3 and 19.2 g) and sole lime treatments (2.3 and 16.8 g) during the 1st cropping season. On average, across the treatments during the two seasons benefit-cost analysis indicated that the lime + P + inoculation treatment gave the highest net benefit (Ksh. 107,518.60) with a benefit-cost ratio of 1.7. These results indicate that a combination of lime + P + inoculation offers a better option for increasing maize and soybean grain yields in the degraded soils of western Kenya.
There are clear indications from the article that the development of value additions for kenaf in Nigeria is having significant impact on economic development and diversification of the nation and poverty reduction among the masses. The full potential of the development of value additions for kenaf as an engine for economic diversification must be realized in Nigeria. Adding value to kenaf is the process of changing or transforming it from its original state (plant biomass) to a more valuable state. The overarching strategy of the kenaf value addition is to turn the kenaf sector in Nigeria into a major player in local and international biodegradable packaging materials, pulp and paper, bio-composites and bio-absorbents industries by adopting improved production and processing technologies and organizing farmers and industrialists into efficient value-added chains. From this article, using bio-degradable packaging bags (jute bags) as a case study, it is expected that the importation of produce bags supposed to be terminated by the year 2020. However, the processing capacity would be increased in a progressive manner in 2019, 2020, 2021 and 2022. There would be no processing by the year 2018, it could be expected that this year would be adequately used for the production and stock piling of kenaf plants and fiber (raw material). While the export capacity would be progressively increased in 2020, 2021 and 2022. By this, from the year 2020 upwards there will be exportation of produce bags from Nigeria markets to the international markets. Annual projected number of jobs in the produce bag value chain would be increased in a progressive manner in 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021 and 2022. It is evident that as a promising industrial crop, kenaf value addition should draw more attention from the government and private entrepreneurs in combining the national policies on agricultural rebirth and industrial growth for kenaf value chains development as panacea for economic diversification.