Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Quality of Malpighia emarginata D.C. Seeds Submitted to Salt Stress

José Joedson Lima Silva, Monik Evelin Leite, Luesley do Carmo Rodrigues, Luciana de Freitas Patriota Gouveia

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44814

Aims: The present experiment aimed to study the germinability of Malpighia emarginata D.C. seeds and initial growth under different levels of salinity stress.

Study Design:  Completely randomised design.

Place and Duration of Study: Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), between February and April 2018.

Methodology: Acerola seeds of "Junko" cultivar were sown on germination paper imbibed with different concentrations of NaCl solutions, with osmotic potentials corresponding to 0, -0.3, -0.6; -0.9; and -1.2 MPa. The experimental design was completely randomised, with four replicates of 50 seeds. After sowing, the papers were rolled and stored in plastic bags, to decrease the rate of evapotranspiration, and they were kept at room temperature for 30 days. The following parameters were evaluated: initial germination percentage (IG%), final germination percentage (FG%), percentage of normal and abnormal seedlings, germination speed index (GSI), average germination time (AGT), shoot length (SL), root length (RL) and number of secondary roots (SR).

Results: The results of analysis of variance allowed verifying significant differences (P < .001) for the treatments in almost all the evaluated parameters, except for shoot length (SL). The increase of the salinity level inhibited germination and initial growth. The most significant reductions were at osmotic potentials lower than -0.6 MPa, being the development of root system more affected than aerial part of the seedlings.

Conclusion: The results of the initial germination and growth test showed that the "Junko" cultivar of acerola can be considered moderately tolerant to salinity in germination and initial growth phases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Study of Cupuaçu [Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex. Spreng.) Schum.,] Tree Progenies Subjected to Water Deficiency

Juscelino Gonçalves Palheta, Luma Castro de Souza, Roberto Lisboa Cunha, Rafael Moysés Alves, Antônio Vinícius Corrêa Barbosa, Diana Jhulia Palheta de Sousa, Jessica Suellen Silva Teixeira, Susana Silva Conceição, Ricardo Shigueru Okumura, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44282

Aims: The study aimed to investigate the physiological behaviour of cupuaçu tree progenies subjected to water deficiency.

Study Design: The experimental design was completely randomised, in a 2x7 factorial scheme (2 water regimes: with and without water deficiency and 7 cupuaçu tree genotypes), totalling 14 treatments with 5 replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out from March to November 2016, in a greenhouse of Embrapa Eastern Amazon in the municipality of Belém, State of Pará, Brazil, located at the geographic coordinates 01º 27' of South Latitude and 48º 30' of West Longitude.

Methodology: The following parameters were evaluated: predawn water potential (Ψpd), water potential of xylem (Ψx), stomatal conductance (GS), transpiration (E), photosynthesis (PS), internal carbon concentration (CI), internal and external carbon ratio (CI/CA), chlorophyll a (Chl a), b (Chl b), total (Chl total), anthocyanin (ANT), carotenoids (CAR), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (ICE), and water-use efficiency (WUE). The variables were submitted to multivariate analysis.

Results: Two distinct groups were resulted.  Group 1 retained the treatments with water deficiency and group 2 retained the control treatments. This result occurred because the water conditions were different. The MC1 was influenced by PS because photosynthetic pigments are essential for photosynthesis. PS, GS, Chl total, Chl a, CAR, CI, CI/CA, Ψpd, Ψx, E, and ICEresulted with greater intensity in the control treatments, and with less intensity in the genotypes submitted to water deficiency.

This behaviour is because of water deficiency that reduces photosynthesis. The MC2 was influenced by Chl b, ANT, and WUE. In water deficiency, the distinction in the physiological behaviour of cupuaçu tree progenies occurs in relation to the progenies that did not undergo water stress.

Conclusion: The cupuaçu tree progenies under water restriction condition have a positive effect on water-use efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fertilisation with Pure Seaweed and in Consortium with Other Sources for Corn Crop

Hipolyana Simone de Oliveira, João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior, Vinicius Santos Gomes da Silva, Maria Inajal Rodrigues da Silva das Neves, Priscila Cordeiro Souto, Karolyne Priscila Oliveira dos Santos, José Alex do NascimentoSilva, José Jailson Lima Bezerra

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/38180

Use of seaweed as a source of nutrition to evaluate the performance of maize hybrids (Zea mays), compared to a control. The experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Microbiology Laboratory, at the Agricultural Sciences Center, Federal University of Alagoas - UFAL. The design was completely randomised, with five treatments and four replications. The evaluated parameters were leaf height and fresh matter weight. According to the results, the cultivar that received pure algae fertilisation obtained the best response.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meroncidius intermedius (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): Incidence and Analysis of Fruits Attacked in Banana Crops in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

Paula Alberti Bonadiman, João Luis Frizzera Junior, Fernando Zanotti Madalon, José Romário Carvalho, Andre Dalla Bernardina Garcia, Dirceu Pratissoli, Lusinério Prezotti

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/45167

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors on the incidence of the damage caused by Meroncidius intermedius on Prata cv. Pacovan banana fruits and whether such damage interferes in the development and commercialisation of the fruits. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first one was carried out at Fazenda Bonadiman, municipality of Iconha ES, Brazil, in an area of 02 hectares cultivated with Pacovan banana, Prata variety, in a spacing of 3 m x 3 m, between the months of June 2016 and May 2017, where the incidence of damage was monitored in the monthly harvested fruits. The second stage was carried out at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo - Santa Teresa campus, in May of 2018, the measurements of the fruits and the sensory analysis and intention to buy damaged fruits being carried out. As a result, it was obtained that the ambient temperature influenced the incidence of pests in the banana crop, being favoured by mild temperatures, while higher temperatures disadvantage the insect causing a lower incidence. From June to October 2016, the highest incidences were observed, with population peaks in September and October, decreasing in December, where the increase in temperature was also reported. The precipitation variable did not present a correlation with the incidence, thus not influencing it. Although the visual quality is impaired, making the fruit infeasible for commercialization in natura, the morphological and sensory characteristics are not jeopardized by the damage, so the fruits can be used for other purposes, such as agroindustry processing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Solution for Production and Quality of Strawberry Grown in Substrate

Dalva Paulus, Ivan Carlos Zorzzi, Anderson Santin, Fabiana Rankrape

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2018/44763

Aims: This study determined a nutritive solution and evaluated the performance in the development, production and quality of strawberry cultivated in the substrate.

Study Design: The treatments were commercial and recommended nutritional solutions for strawberry using the methods of Castelane and Araújo (C.A.), Furlani and Fernandes Junior (F.F.J.) and the proposed solution with seven replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the experimental area of the Federal Technological University of Paraná, Brazil, in the period between May and December 2014.

Methodology: Agronomic variables such as yield, number of fruits, nutrient content, physiological indicators, physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were analysed.

Results: The proposed nutrient solution resulted in larger masses of fresh and dry matter (225.4 g plant-1and 27.5 g plant-1), number of fruits (40.1) and fresh fruit mass (750.4 g plant-¹), in relation to the other evaluated solutions. The proposed solution resulted in better physical and chemical characteristics such as soluble solids, reducing and total sugars, anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid and the strawberry fruits presented an attractive colour and met the quality standards for the consumer. The highest levels of nitrogen (33.7 g kg-1), phosphorus (9.3 g kg-1), and potassium (28.2 g kg-1) in the leaf tissue were found in the proposed solution and contributed to productivity and fruit quality gains of a strawberry.

Conclusion: These results provide a nutrient base and can be adapted to other cultivars in different locations.