Post-Harvest challenge accounts for 40-50% of losses in tomato value-chain in Nigeria and other parts of the world. This study evaluated the effects of wood ash treatment on the sensory, physicochemical, nutritional and mineral compositions of green tomato stored under ambient conditions (28.3ºC, 67%). Green tomato (kerewa var.) was harvested from University of Ilorin, Nigeria and brought to the Chemistry/Biochemistry laboratory of Nigerian Stored Products Research Institute, Ilorin, Nigeria, cooled by aeration, weighed and divided into 3 lots (A0=control; A1=1: 1, tomato: wood ash; A2=1: 2, tomato: wood ash). These were kept in uniformly sized paper carton (170 mm×120 mm×140 mm) on the shelf for 28 days. Sensory attributes were assessed on 5-point hedonic scale after storage, moisture and mineral analyses were conducted using , pH, acidity, soluble solids and carotenoids were estimated using  methods while vitamin C content was evaluated with  method. No significant (p>0.05) difference was observed between A1 and A2 in their sensory scores whereas both were significantly (p<0.05) higher than control (A0). Weight loss (%) and decay incidence (%) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in control (29.39% and 16.42% respectively) compared to A1 (4.61% and 4.65% respectively) and A2 (8.22% and 4.76% respectively). Moisture content of control (90.48%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than A1 (85.78%) and A2 (87.99%). Similarly, the pH, brix-acid ratio and vitamin C of control were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of A1 and A2, the acidity of control was significantly (p<0.05) lower than A1 and A2 while there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the soluble solid contents of control, A1 and A2. The study showed that wood ash could be used in the post-harvest handling of matured green tomato as the results indicated that groups treated with wood ash demonstrated good indices of storability at ambient conditions for 28 days.
Lecithin is an important by-product of vegetable oil processing that has foremost functions in health, food manufacturing and processing, industrial product development and pharmaceutical formulation. The importation of lecithin to Nigeria for Industrial use can be reduced through sourcing of lecithin from Nigerian varieties of oil bearing seeds such as soybean. Following careful selection of seeds, sorting and cleaning; oil was extracted from four varieties of Nigerian nationally released varieties of soybean using soxlet procedure. Lecithin was subsequently isolated from the extracted oil through the process known as degumming. Quality parameters such as Iodine Values (I.V), Peroxide Values (P.V), Saponification Value (Sap.V), Acid Values (A.V) and Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values were evaluated for all oil and lecithin samples extracted. Percentage yield of lecithin isolated from the selected varieties of soybean namely: TGX 1904-6F, TGX 1987-62F, TGX 1448-2E and TGX 1978-.10F are 2.71%, 2.5% and 2.07% respectively. Value of some quality indices such as the Jodine values, peroxide values, Acid Values and Free Fatty Acid obtained from this study were also found to be within the FAO/WHO recommended specifications. This study has provided detailed information from the characteristics stand point and quality index of oil extracted from the selected varieties of soybean as well as lecithin isolated from their oils; such data is however desirable so as to channel each of the selected soybean varieties to appropriate utilization and enhanced value addition necessary to improve the soybean value chain in Nigeria. This study therefore concludes that quality lecithin may be sourced from some Nigeria varieties of soybean to meet various industrial purposes.
Roberto Pequeno de Sousa, Janilson Pinheiro de Assis, Paulo César Ferreira Linhares, Eudes de Almeida Cardoso, José Aluisio de Araújo Paula, Maria Francisca Soares Pereira, Neurivan Vicente da Silva, Francisco Laíres Cavalcante, Ariana da Mota Oliveira
Urucum (Bixa orellana L.) is a shrub plant occurring in the caatinga biome. This study evaluated the biometrical assessment of quantitative features of Urucum in northeastern Brazil. Fruit samples were taken from an area of native vegetation of the Federal Rural Semi-Arid University (UFERSA), Mossoró, RN. Measurements on seed length and width of fruit samples were done at the plant science laboratory. Descriptive and graphical analysis were carried out using the R statistical software. Seed length and width showed a small range of variation with an excellent and reasonable values of coefficient of variation, respectively. A regular degree of symmetry and a mesokurtic distribution were observed for seed length and width. There was non-significant linear correlation between both variables which did not fit to the normal probability distribution.
The obtainment of seedlings is one of the main stages of the papaya crop and good irrigation management provides proper water status, contributing to higher quality seedlings. Thus, this work had as objective to evaluate the growth and quality of Papaya 'Golden THB' seedlings submitted to different irrigation depths. The study was carried out at the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Campus Itapina, located in Colatina, Northwest region of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the period from May 16 to July 19, 2018. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments composed of 25 plants each, totaling 150 seedlings in the experiment. The treatments consisted in the application of six daily irrigation depths, corresponding to 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm. At 65 days after planting, the seedlings were evaluated for morphological characteristics: length of the root system, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, dry mass of the aerial part, dry mass of the root system, total dry mass and Dickson quality index. Irrigation depths interfered in the growth and quality of papaya 'Golden THB' seedlings during their production period. The recommended irrigation depth for the production of papaya 'Golden THB' seedlings with high quality is 8.15 mm d-1, which showed a higher Dickson quality index and good responses in all the morphological characteristics studied.
The environmental impacts of human acts have been a global concern of the contemporary era. The conflict between economic development and environmental protection is a very important topic to be considered before beginning any human activity that may cause negative effects to the environment. This work was designed to review the types of environmental impacts, their classes, and the Brazilian laws related to them. Additionally, this work shows the consequences of human actions on the environment around the world that without the proper assessment can lead to disasters and outcomes that may never be reversed. Although environmental impacts and sustainability are not new subjects, environmental disasters still occur with a certain regularity worldwide, pointing to the human negligence as a possible source of environmental disasters. It important for companies, farmers, and the general public to realize how the environmental impacts their daily lives, and the required measures to minimize the negative effects.