Coriander is among the most consumed leafy vegetables in Brazil, employing a large number of people in its production chain. Among the limiting factors to the production of this Horticultural crop, there is nematode of the genus Meloidogyne causing root galls. The present work was carried out aiming at understanding the impact on coriander plants infected by the parasitism of M. incognita race 1. The number of galls were verified at 30 days after nematode inoculation as well as the plant survival up to the harvest stage. In addition, pollen viability and fruit yield in coriander plants of two cultivars (Verdão and HTV Dom Luiz), inoculated at sowing with six inoculum densities (0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000 and 16,000 eggs/plant) and evaluated at a randomized complete block design with four replications were also analyzed. The plot was composed of one plant. The presence of the pathogen did not influence the pollen viability by means of the acetic Carmine and Alexander dyes. However, neither tetrazolium nor in vitro pollen germination means were efficient in the viability identification. Densities of 8,000 and 16,000 eggs/plant did not allow the development of plants, leading them to death. Inoculation at sowing, and evaluation of the number of galls at 30 days did not limit the reestablishment of the plant development and fruit yield, up to the density of 4,000 eggs/plant.
The economic feasibility of soybean and sunflower crop system on a farm in Diamantino MT Brazil is analyzed. Data were retrieved from the 2017-2018 harvest, even though they were repeated for a six-year span. Project-inherent items were grouped in fixed and variable costs. Main financial indexes comprised total yearly income, current net rate, equivalent uniform yearly rate, internal rate of return, profit index during the period and payback period. In the case of the suggested system, the plantation proved to be viable, with total yearly income of R$ 3,624,000.00 at the end of six years; current net rate at R$ 1,468,920.00; equivalent uniform yearly rate at R$ 334,810.00; 18% internal rate of return; 33% profit index during the period, and payback period of 4.53 years. However, 15% negative variations in price, productivity or income, or positive variation at 30% in real operation costs proved the unfeasibility of the project, with special reference to current negative net rate. Supplementary profit (hectare) from sunflower was 33% higher than that of soybean. Fixed costs paid by soybean suggested two annual crops. Method for the application of production costs is highly relevant since it provides a good assessment on the implementation project and presents a good diagnosis for decision-taking with more profitable alternatives in planning soybean production to dilute costs and increase income.
A field trial was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike to evaluate the insecticidal potentials and rates of application of seed extract of Carica papaya and leaf extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Furadan for the control of maize stem borer, Busseola fusca. C. papaya leaf ash was applied at the rate of 3 g per plot, while the C. papaya seed powder was applied at the rate of 4.5 g per plot. C. citratus leaf ash was applied at the rate of 3 g per plot, while Furadan was applied at 1.5 g per plot and the control had no treatment (0 g). Each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data collected were insect population, growth and yield of maize for 2,4,6,8 weeks after planting (WAP). The results showed that all the treatments differed significantly from the control (P< 0.05) on the number of holes on the leaves per plot, on the number of holes on maize stem per plot and number of larvae per maize stem. Growth and yield of maize were significantly increased (P< 0.05) due to the protection given by the plant materials. C. citratus leaf ash and C. papaya leaf ash and seed powder demonstrated strong insecticidal activity against maize stem borer, B. fusca, and therefore can be used as replacement for Furadan. C. papaya leaf ash at 3 cg per plot and seed powder at 4.5 g per plot as well as C. citratus leaf ash at the rate of 3 g per plot are recommended.
The objective of this research was to make a survey on the marketing of rootstock and citrus seedlings due in no 48 of 2013 the map, in the community of Santa Luzia of Induá, municipality of Capitão Poço/Pará. The study was developed based on the application of structured questionnaires founded in 48, where they were interviewed at random 50 producers of seedlings assets. Finally, it was performed the analysis of the information obtained. marketing is the latest step in the system of cultivation of seedlings production, which allows the sale of citrus seedlings for different regions. In addition to the final changes, the marketing of the rootstock is also carried out in the community. The time of marketing of the same varies between 18 and 24 months, for both small and medium producers, being that the big nursery realize the marketing only in the period of 18 months. The producers stated that there was a significant increase in the demand for different varieties of citrus. The small and medium producers stated that the adequacy in 48 would be the main bottleneck faced in the community, once the appropriateness requires an understanding and in-depth analysis of how they will work, as they are not accustomed to develop the activity according to some criteria established in this normative. The marketing of rootstock is held by a small minority of Community producers of Santa Luzia Of Induá in accordance with the IN 48, where it was found that the majority of producers sell seedlings of the canopy formed and dipstick type, however, in other regions to change type gauge is more commercialized.
Robson Prucoli Posse, Ramon Tavares de Oliveira Andrade, Francielly Valani, Vinicius de Souza Oliveira, Élio José dos Santos, Luiz Henrique Lopes Pego, Juana Virginia Guasti Santos, Geilson Silva Costa
Watermelon is one of the main vegetable crops in Brazil and allows the management of its irrigation, an indispensable factor for its productive success. This paper aimed to evaluate the quality of watermelon 'Top Gun' fruit (Citrullus lanatus), submitted to different irrigation depths. The study took place in the horticulture sector at the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Campus Itapina, located in Colatina, Espírito Santo. The experimental design was completely randomized, containing four repetitions of each treatment. The treatments consisted in the application of six irrigation depths: 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175% of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo), calculated daily, adding up to 598.3; 628.8; 659.7; 690.9; 722.8 and 755.8 mm, respectively, for the applied irrigation depths at the end of the experiment (irrigation + rainfall). After the harvest, the watermelon fruit of each treatment were analyzed for their quality characteristics, being: total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), potential of Hydrogen (pH) and TSS / TA ratio. The application of different irrigation depths interfered with the quality of watermelon ‘Top Gun’ fruit. The irrigation depth of 658.3 mm provided a higher value of total soluble solids, a characteristic that is used as indicative of sweetness, being the most suitable for the production of higher quality watermelon fruit.