The present work aimed to evaluate the productive performance of chrysanthemum cultivated in an open field under different irrigation depths. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, consisting of 6 treatments with 20 repetitions each. The treatments consisted of different levels of irrigation, with daily replacement of 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc). The ETc was determined daily by drainage lysimeters installed at the base of six pots, used as reference (100% ETc). For the application of the treatments an auto compensating trickle irrigation system was used, with a dripper per pot flowing 1.3 liters per hour. The evaluations were made at 90 days after planting, when measurements of fresh mass of shoot system, dry mass of shoot system, fresh mass of the root system, dry mass of the root system, fresh mass of the flower, dry mass of the flower, plant height, stem diameter and flower diameter. The 175% ETc depth, which corresponded to an average daily depth of 10.69 mm, presented the best results for the analyzed characteristics, however, the plants did not present the quality standard necessary for commercialization due to the negative interference of the incident climatic conditions in open field plants.
Field and laboratory experiments were carried out between April 2015 and March 2016 to evaluate the effects of planting dates on seed physiological quality and health characteristics of two varieties of chilli pepper. The field trial was laid out in 2x3 factorial experiment in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The factors studied included two chilli varieties (Shito Adope and Legon-18) and three planting dates (May 12, 2015; June 13, 2015 and September 29, 2015). The field study was conducted at the Crops Research Institute-Kwadaso Station, Kumasi, Ghana. There were significant varieties x planting dates interaction for the number of days to 50% flowering and number of days to 50% fruiting traits. Shito Adope planted in June took the shortest time to flower, significantly earlier than the other treatment combinations yet similar to that of Shito Adope planted in May. For fruit set, Shito Adope planted in May took the shortest time to set fruit, significantly earlier than the other treatment combinations yet similar to that of Shito Adope planted in June. Varieties x planting dates interaction had significant for the number of fruits per plant trait. Shito Adope planted in May produced the highest number of fruits per plant although not different from the number produced by Legon-18 planted in June. Higher seed germination percentages (89.9%) were recorded by seed produced from May planting. September planting resulted in high seed yield parameters such as number of seeds per fruit (77.3), seed weight per fruit (0.40g) and 1000 seed weight (5.00g). Non-significant interactions between the treatments for seed vigor were found. The highest occurrence of fungal pathogens was observed on seeds arising from May planting while the least occurrence was recorded on seeds arising from September planting. The study concluded that the genotype and environmental conditions interactively influenced flowering and seed quality traits. Shito Adope, planted in May recorded the highest number of aborted flowers whereas Legon-18 planted in September produced the highest number of seeds per fruit as well as the heaviest seed weight per fruit. The higher germination percentage was however recorded by seed produced from May planting.
Studies were conducted to observe the effect of different frequencies of nutrient sprays in tulips at different planting depths under agro-ecological conditions of Kashmir Cheshmashahi Srinagar during 2016-17. Bulbs were planted at the depth of 10, 15 and 20cm and a water soluble fertilizer NPK (19-19-19) was sprayed with three frequencies 3, 5 and 7 sprays in two cultivars of tulip Apeldoom and Golden Oxford. The results reveal that minimum number of days for bulb sprouting was observed in the plants planted at a depth of 10cm irrespective of the variety. Plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and leaf area index was found maximum in the plants treated with 7 nutrient sprays which was at par with plants sprayed with 5 nutrient sprays in both the tulip cultivars. There was no significant effect of planting depth on vegetative parameters except plant height which was observed maximum at shallow depth of 10cm. In case of floral parameters days taken to flower bud appearance, color break and flower opening were minimum in plants planted at a depth of 10cm with 3 nutrient sprays. However flower bud length, flower diameter, scape length, scape thickness and flower duration were maximum in the plants treated with 7 nutrient sprays which were at par with the plants sprayed with 5 nutrient sprays and the effect of planting depth was found non-significant in these parameters. Similarly in the bulb parameters number of bulbs per plant, weight and size of main bulb was observed highest in plants planted at a depth of 20cm and sprayed with 7 nutrient sprays in both the tulip cultivars, however number and weight of bulblets per plant was found maximum in the plants planted at a depth of 10cm with 7 nutrient sprays and results were found at par with the plants treated with 5 nutrient sprays.
Aims: To evaluate the biometric characteristics of production and productivity of Potiguar corn cultivar, which is recommended to the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in different types of fertilizations and row spacing on irrigated system.
Study Design: It was adopted a randomized block design at 3 x 2 factorial experiment with four replications, the treatments consisted of three fertilizations (OF - Organic Fertilization; OMF – Organomineral Fertilization and MF - Mineral Fertilization) and two row spacing (80 cm and 50 cm).
Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out from June to October 2013, at Fazenda Experimental Rafael Fernandes, in the community of Alagoinha, belonging to the Federal Rural University of Semi-Arido (UFERSA), lying 20 km from the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
Methodology: The organic fertilization (OF) was performed as minimum recommendation corresponding to 10 t ha-1 of bovine manure. The organomineral fertilization (OMF) was made by applying 50% of the recommended amount of manure recommended in organic fertilization (OF) 5 t ha-1, and 50% of the recommendation of mineral fertilizer (MF). The mineral fertilization (MF) was performed based on the parameters observed in the soil analysis and recommendation for the corn crop in the region due to an expected maximum productivity.
Results: The study showed that biometric parameters of production: ear length, number of grain lines per ear and mass of 1000 grains were not significantly influenced by the factors fertilizations and row spacing. The mineral fertilization associated with the spacing of 80 cm between rows provided greater results in the biometric components ear diameter, mass of ear with husk, mass of ear without husk and mass of grains per ear.
Conclusion: Some of the biometric parameters evaluated were significantly influenced by the factors fertilizations and row spacing. The types of fertilizations studied, regardless of row spacing, did not significantly interfere in the productivity of the Potiguar corn cultivar.
The cowpea weevils [Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the primary pest affecting grain and seeds of stored cowpea beans. The control of this insect comprises expensive methods such as fumigation or spraying of chemicals, which are unfeasible for small farmers. The use of insecticidal plants, such as the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), may stand out as a cheaper alternative. This study evaluates the bioactivity of neem powder on the control of weevils in cowpea seeds. We tested four types of powders according to the part of the plant from which it originated: leaves, fruits, bark, and the mixture of these three parts in the same proportion. The bioassay of the action spectrum and the insecticidal effects were assessed using four doses of each type of powder: 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00% per 20g of beans. The fruit powder repelled weevils at the lower doses used, while leaf powder, bark, and the mixture were neutral. Although neem powder reduced the survival of insects, the reduction was slow, showing mild toxicity. Neem powder may be an alternative for the control of cowpea weevils in storage units. However, the efficiency of the control depends on the part of the plant and dosage used.