Open Access Case study

Conservation of Endangered Indigenous Seeds through Seed Banks

Sreenivasa ., Vahid Sharifi

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/27957

In the present study a case study of six community based seed banks established in the six villages viz. Balehalli, Belavaneralu, Hullikere, Hanthanakere, Bellathahalli, Kuriyarapalya villages etc. of Tumkur district Karnataka have been presented. These community based seed banks have been established under community based seed bank network project (CSBN). The Self help groups collect seeds from diver’s origin. Community seed banks was managed by local self-help groups, the seed banks collect, distribute and multiply local varieties of seeds in an organized manner. Farmers one by one can borrow these seeds, from seed bank which is returned in double the quantity of what they borrowed. In 2003, nearly 50 quintals of different types of local seed verities including cereals, pulses and spices and dry fruits are collected from six community seed banks of Tumkur district. The quantity of seeds distributed by the community seed banks was 50 tons of local seed varieties. Farmers one by one can have a loan of these seeds, from seed banks which are returned in two fold the quantity of what they borrowed in 2004. Field staff of BIRD-K(BAIF Institute for rural development-K) facilitates the set up of these seed banks by building a strong relationship with the community. Endangered local seeds were collected and seed banks were established to preserve them for multiplication. This is to ensure farmers’ increase seeds, which reduces their dependence on markets for their supply.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Diversity among Tropical and Subtropical Maize Inbreds Based on Morphological Traits and Carotenoid Content

Adewole Akintunde, Gbadebo Olaoye, Samuel Adelowo Olakojo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/46290

The available maize germplasm contains sufficient genetic variability for pro-vitamin A content which could be utilized for development of pro-vitamin enriched varieties aimed at reducing vitamin A deficiency among millions of resource-limited Africans. Fifty-one maize inbred lines from Nigeria and CIMMYT (Zimbabwe) comprising of thirty-seven yellow and fourteen white endosperm types were evaluated in replicated trials at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ikenne and the Teaching and Research farm, University of Ilorin. The objective was to assess the extent of diversity among the inbreds using morphological traits and carotenoid content. The results showed wide variability (P = .05) among the inbred lines for grain yield and other traits as well as total carotenoids. Differences in weather factors in the two locations significantly affected the expression of the traits investigated especially grain yield which recorded the highest deficit in Ilorin due to prolonged drought-stress that occurred at flowering period. Although many of the inbred lines exhibited differential performances for grain yield across the two locations, three inbred lines- BD74-49, BD74-68 and BD74-81 showed consistency in their performance for this trait across the two locations. Significant variation in kernel carotenoid content was also obtained among the 40 maize genotypes investigated. Total carotenoid ranged from 0.03µg/g in the white kernel inbred TZEI 65 to 56.52µg/g in a light orange coloured inbred line BD74-89. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) dendrogram constructed from the morphological traits clustered the 51 inbred lines into two groups based essentially on their geographical origin, while the dendrogram generated based on total carotenoid content clustered the 40 inbred lines into two major groups with clusters of at least three inbred lines in a sub-cluster. Clustering patterns revealed that lines with high carotenoid content were found in different sub-clusters indicating the feasibility of developing high carotenoid maize varieties from the currently available gene pool.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Seed Bank in the Tropical Rainforest Inserted in Agricultural Matrix, Northeast Region of Brazil

Joselane Príscila Gomes da Silva, Luiz Carlos Marangon, Ana Lícia Patriota Feliciano, Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo Ferreira, José Edson de Lima Torres, Wedson Batista dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/46619

This research aimed to evaluate under two conditions of luminosity the floristic composition of the seed bank the soil of a remnant of Atlantic Forest inserted in an agricultural matrix located in the northeastern region of Brazil. Sixty samples of superficial soil were collected, with a distance, of approximately, 50 meters. The samples were placed in polyethylene bags, identified and transported to the forest nursery of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco where they were placed under two conditions of luminosity, full sun and 70% shading. Count of emerged seedlings was performed daily. They were considered as emerged after the opening of the protophyllum. At 120 days, the seedlings were removed and transplanted into polyethylene bags and left in beds and the soil was stirred to facilitate the germination of some viable seeds that might still exist. To compare the richness and number of seedlings emerged in the two light conditions, ANOVA was performed. There were 3,965 seedlings, belonging to 15 botanical families and 29 morphospecies. In full sun, 524 emerged and under shading 70%, 3,441 seedlings. Considering the richness and number of emerged seedlings, there was a significant difference in the F test (P=.05), because it presented a higher mean for the analyzed variables, the 70% shade presented better results, providing better conditions for seedling emergence. The seed bank as a potential source to produce seedlings of shrub-tree/tree-tree species, as they are responsible for the propagation of species of plant species, for the most part, for example, the beginning of degraded succession or colonization of clearings, with the worst result being under shading 70%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allelopathic Effect of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Highland Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter)) and Barely (Hordeum vulgare L.)

Fikadu Nega, Temesgen Bedassa Gudeta

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/43100

The phenomenon of allelopathy, whereby a plant species chemically interferes with the germination, growth or development of other plant species has been known and documented for over 2000 years. Allelochemicals are secondary metabolites of plants, released into the environment through volatilization, leaching, root exudation and decomposition of residues. This study was aimed to examine the allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus globulus on seed germination and early growth of highland teff (Eragrostis tef) and barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) conducted at Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center. Fresh leaf, juvenile stems, root and mixtures of these aqueous extracts at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% concentrations respectively were used to run the experiment under Laboratory condition. The employed research design was Complete Randomized Design with three replications and two factorials as: plant parts and concentrations. The quantitative data was collected, coded and then subjected to SAS Version 9.1 procedure following two ways ANOVA. The means were compared by using least significance difference test (LSD) at P<0.05 probability level. It was noted that aqueous extracts at a concentration of 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% had an inhibitory effect on both crops seed germination and seedling growth. The effect was found in much higher than the control treatment. The inhibitory effects were increased as the extract concentration increased and more pronounced in fresh leaf aqueous extract compared to the rest extract sources. This finding indicates allelochemials in the Eucalyptus globulus plant parts adversely affect seed germination and early seedling growth of teff and barely. The Phytotoxicity of Eucalyptus globulus fresh leaf aqueous extract showed the highest impact affecting early root growth of barely and shoot growth of teff under the highest level of concentration (50%) of the extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability Analysis for Quantitative Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

B. Manjunatha, B. Niranjana Kumara

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JEAI/2019/42305

The present study was conducted at Agricultural and Horticultural Research station, Kathalagere, Karnataka. The experiment consisted of sixty four rice genotypes that were evaluated to study genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for grain yield along with four yield-associated traits. The experiment was conducted using 8x8 simple lattice square design during the 2015 kharif main cropping season. The analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) indicating the existence of genetic variability among the sixty four genotypes for all the traits studied. Higher PCV and GCV values were exhibited by panicles per square meter which suggest the possibility of improving this trait through selection. The highest heritability was recorded for days to 50% flowering and plant height (cm) followed by yield kg/ha and panicles per meter square. High to medium heritability coupled with high GCV and high genetic advance as percentage of means were exhibited for plant height, panicles per square meter. High genetic advances as per cent of means were recorded by yield kg per hectare, panicles per square metre, Plant height (cm) and days to fifty per cent flowering.