Fruit flies are pests of great agricultural concern, as they cause serious damage to the global fruit production. However, there are potential entomophagous organisms that can reduce the population of pest species such as Ceratitis capitata. Among the voracious and entomophagous Dermaptera predators, the species Pygidicrana v-nigrum displays a strong predatory potential to improve the agricultural handling by assisting the reduction of agrochemical use. This study aims to evaluate the biological development and quantification of P. v-nigrum consumption and predation of C. capitata during the fruit fly’s immature stages. Larvae from the 3rd instar and pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly were used, where biological parameters were analyzed, including the duration and nymphal viability, adult insect size (length), sex ratio, survival of adults and egg production, and the ethology of predation behavior. It was found that the P. v-nigrum nymphs from the 1st to 3rd instar did not feed on the pupal stage C. capitata. When ingesting the C. capitata larvae, the Dermaptera reached the end of the nymph period, on average, after 228 days. The lowest nymphal viability of P. v-nigrum was 85.0% and occurred in its 1st instar when fed with larvae. The food provided did not influence the size of this regardless of sex; however, predation on C. capitata larvae resulted in a higher proportion of females. Furthermore, the survival of the female P. v-nigrum was longer than the male, regardless of the food consumed. There were a high number of deposited eggs from P. v-nigrum when feeding on pupae. The predatory consumption of P. v-nigrum increased when fed with C. capitata larvae and pupae, regardless of the nymphal or adult phases. It can be concluded, from the results, that the biological development of the P. v-nigrum is not affected when fed with the larval and pupal stages of C. capitata.
This research aimed to determine the concentration of tannins in the bark and in the branches of ten species of Caatinga occurrence. The Folin-Denis colorimetric method was used to determine the phenol content and the tannins are precipitated using a protein. The tannin content was obtained by the difference between the supernatant and the non-tannic phenol content. The data were subjected to the Shapiro-Wilk normality’s test and after, to Analysis of Variance using a 2x10 factorial design and Turkey’s test was used to detect differences. For bark sample, the species Parapiptadenia zehntneri, Parapiptadenia rigida and Libidibia ferrea presented the three highest percentages among the studied species, being 10.84%, 10.74% and 10.27%, respectively. For branch sample, Aspidosperma pyrifolium presented the highest percentage of tannins among the ten species, with 9.15% of these substances. It is possible to suggest the use of other parts of the tree to extract the tannins, such as the branches and their bark, offering an alternative for the extraction that is usually made from the main trunk and providing sustainability to the Caatinga.
Albergma Estevão de Queiroz Magalhães Cavalcante, Izaque Francisco Candeia de Mendonça, Joedla Rodrigues de Lima, Felipe Silva de Medeiros, Roberta Patrícia de Sousa Silva, Sérvio Túlio Pereira Justino, Amanda de Lira Freitas, Ediglécia Pereira de Almeida, Sávio Ferreira Vidalett
Introduction: The process of degradation of the environmental system of the Farinha river basin is due to soil inadequacy and natural factors.
Aims: The present work had as objective to evaluate the degree of deterioration of the environmental system of the hydrographic basin of the river Farinha the geo - referenced information are related to the physical characterization of the micro-basin based on the physical conservationist diagnosis of the Geographic Information Systems - GIS.
Methodology: The hydrographic basin of the Farinha River, located in the Center-West region of Paraíba, includes an area of 8.0915,8 ha. Images of the Landsat 8 satellite, OLI sensor in bands 3, 4 and 5 were applied, are classified as a visual and supervised process. With this, the software QGIS 2.18.17 generated vector data and the IDRISI Selva V.17, was used as a means to process the raster data. Under these conditions, the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the SRTM project was included for plans related to the polygonal delimitation of the micro-basin, characterizing a drainage network, compartmentalization and mean slope.
Results: The natural vegetation of the Caatinga presents as open tree shrub and closed arboreal, with the predominance of open vegetation, representing 48037 ha (59.4%). Concerning conflict analysis for land use, it was observed that compartment 1 was the only one that did not present such events. Compartment 2 resulted in a higher percentage of conflicts with 24.1%, however, areas with 4.2% have agricultural divergences, the 19.9% are due to livestock and mining activities. In relation to compartment 3 the area 6.3% is used for agriculture.
Conclusion: The physical-conservationist diagnosis of the micro-basin of the river Farinha presents an incorrect management, for this, a suitable study must be done to reduce the degradation of the area. Consequently, public policies are designed to interconnect communities living in these areas with their physical environment in a sustainable way.
The aim of this research was to investigate the fertility status of soils under Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) in Akamkpa and Odukpani Local Government Areas of Cross River State. Composite soil samples were collected at the depth of 0-15 cm under Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) using soil auger from fourteen (14) locations. The soil samples were analysed for some physico-chemical properties using standard procedures. Results obtained showed that the soils were predominantly sandy loam in both Akamkpa and Odukpani with a significant difference in the soil pH which was very strongly acid (mean pH in water =5.0). Organic carbon was high (26.00–41.00 g/kg) in Akamkpa and Odukpani (24.00 – 41.00 g/kg). Total nitrogen was medium (2.4–4.9 g/kg) in Akamkpa and low to medium (0.19 – 0.33%) in Odukpani. Available phosphorus was generally low (1.8-2.9 mg/kg) and (1.88 – 6.63 mg/kg) in both areas. Exchangeable calcium was low to medium (3.6-7.4 cmol/kg) in Akamkpa and medium to high (5.6-14.8 cmol/kg) in Odukpani. Magnesium contents were low (0.8-6.7 cmol/kg) and high (0.4 – 12.4 cmol/kg) in both areas. While exchangeable potassium (0.08 – 0.13 cmol/kg) and (0.09 – 0.13 cmol/kg) with sodium contents (0.06 – 0.08 cmol/kg) and (0.06 – 0.10 cmol/kg) were low. Exchangeable acidity of hydrogen (0.1 – 3.7 cmol/kg) was high in Akamkpa and low to medium (0.08-2.32 cmol/kg) in Odukpani and that of Aluminum contents (0.3 – 4.0 cmol/kg) and (0.0 – 4.0 cmol/kg) were generally low. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) was low (4.5 – 11.4 cmol/kg) in Akamkpa and low to medium (7.2 – 24.01 cmol/kg) in Odukpani and those of Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC) was low to medium (9.2 – 15.9 cmol/kg) in Akamkpa but low and high (7.8 – 24.41 cmol/kg) in Odukpani. The Base Saturation was medium to high (37 – 96%) in Akamkpa and high (60.9 – 98.4%) in Odukpani. The studies revealed that soils under Bamboo had high organic matter content. This could be attributed to the bamboo leaf fall which enhances the increase of organic matter content.
In the northeast of Brazil, the yield of eggplant has been unpredictable, especially when the flowering coincides with the hottest period of the year. The objective of this study was to evaluate eggplant genotypes for tolerance to high temperatures and to identify correlations between traits that aid the indirect selection of genotypes tolerant to high temperatures. Twenty-two genotypes were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications conducted in a greenhouse and in the open field, both located at the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, between December 2016 and May 2017. Positive correlations were obtained for the pairs, number of fruits per plant (NFP) x fruit fixation index (FFI), NFP x production per plant (PP) and PP x FFI and negative for the pair NFP x PP. The associations among the traits pollen viability (PV), FFI, NFP and PP were low and/or negative for all pairs in both environments and indicates that the indirect selection for FFI and PP through PV is not efficient. Higher values for PV, NFP, PP were observed in greenhouse cultivation, while in the field the genotypes had the best performance for fruit weight (FWe) FFI, fruit length (FL), fruit width (FWi) and length/width ratio of fruit (FLWR). In high temperature conditions, the genotypes CNPH 135, CNPH 93, CNPH 79, CNPH 84, CNPH 71, CNPH 71, CNPH 668, Ajimurasaki F1 and Kokushi Onaga F1 with good FFI and CNPH 135 with the highest FFI, PP, PV and PWe. The FFI in 45.4% of the genotypes under high temperatures was low, around 21.3 and 40.5%. In the field, genotypes CNPH 84 and CNPH 668 stood out with the best FFI (> 60%).