Open Access Original Research Article

Nematicidal Properties of Moringa oleifera, Chromolaena odorata and Panicum maximum and their Control Effects on Pathogenic Nematodes of Yam

Anthony A. Mainoo, Ben K. Banful

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i230066

A field study was conducted at Atonsu, Sekyere Central District, Ghana from 2013 to 2014, to (i) determine the effects of Moringa oleifera, Chromolaena odorata and Panicum maximum as ex-situ mulches, on soil nematodes population after two years of yam cropping and (ii) assess the effects of the soil nematodes on the yield and physical tuber quality of yam. The field experiment was a 3x3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was ex-situ mulch types at three levels; Panicum maximum (farmers’ choice), Chromolaena odorata and Moringa oleifera. The second factor was natural fallow aged systems at three levels:  3, 5, and 7 years old. Data collected included nematode population changes, total tuber yield of yam and tuber physical quality assessment. Generally, Meloidogyne spp., Pratylenchus spp., and Scutellonema spp. were the nematode genera identified. However, Scutellonema spp. was found to be the most pathogenic nematode affecting yam tuber yield and physical quality. Chromolaena and Moringa mulches suppressed Scutellonema spp. populations by 80.7% and 76.2% respectively as compared to the Panicum maximum mulch. The suppressed Scutellonema spp. population significantly contributed to higher tuber yields and good tuber physical quality under the M. oleifera and C. odorata mulches in comparison to the P. maximum mulch. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Soil Attributes, Accumulation of Foliar Macronutrients and Productivity of the 'Vitória' Pineapple Plant Fertilized with Urea and Chicken Manure

Francisco de Assis Pereira Leonardo, Walter Esfrain Pereira, Thiago Jardelino Dias, Joana Gomes de Moura, Mário Leno Martins Véras, Ygor Henrique Leal

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i230067

The pineapple plant cultivar 'Vitória' is resistant to Fusarium and it presents similar characteristics to the cultivars 'Pérola' and 'Smoot Cayene'. However, the expansion of this new cultivar depends on the development of research on several aspects, among them, fertilization. In this context, the experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating soil fertility, foliar macronutrient contents and productivity in 'Vitória' pineapple plant in function of nitrogen fertilization with urea and chicken manure. The experiment was conducted under randomized block design, with four replications. Treatments consisted of five doses of N, in two sources of organic fertilization (chicken manure ) and mineral (urea), totaling nine combinations generated through the Central Composite Matrix of Box: T1 , 44 and 2.91; T 2 , 152 and 0; T 3 , 0 and 10; T 4, 44 and 17.1; T 5 , 260 and 2.91; T6 , 152 and 10; T7 , 152 and 20; T8 , 304 and 10; and T9, 260 and 17.1 g plant-1. At 6 months after planting the chicken manure decreased H + A1, Mg and CEC levels, and at 23 months after planting increased soil P, SB e CEC levels.  In the two seasons, Urea has reduced pH and it reduced Mg, SB and CEC contents at six months after planting. Doses of urea between 10 and 12 g plant-1 are recommended in order to maximize the productivity of the pineapple plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tolerance and Phenotypic Analysis of Irrigated Rice Genotypes under Iron Toxicity

Eduardo Anibele Streck, Gabriel Almeida Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Karling Facchinello, Lais Perin, Pedro Ujacov da Silva, Ariano Martins de Magalhães Júnior

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i230068

Introduction: The development of tolerant rice genotypes is the main tool to minimize the problem caused by the excess of iron in the soil.

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the response of genotypes of the Embrapa breeding program of irrigated rice against iron stress, as well as to envision the relationship of the effect of this disorder on leaf mass production in different phenological phases of the plant.

Study Design: The trial was established in a randomized block design with additional controls, with the plots consisting of four rows 3 m long with 0.20 m spacing between rows.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Embrapa Temperate Climate Lowlands Station, in a period of nine years, consisting of the harvest of 2006/2007 until 2014/2015.

Methodology: It was evaluated 255 lines along with 4 additional control cultivars with known tolerance levels. The symptoms were evaluated at 40, 70 and 100 days after plant emergence through a visual assessment in the field, based on the standard evaluation system for rice. In addition to the determination of the average toxicity levels of genotypes, the mass was collected, constituted by the dry matter of shoot, for the detection of interrelationships through their correlations.

Results: It was found that 58.82% of the developed irrigated rice lines show good tolerance to toxicity by excess iron. The association of the content of dry matter of shoots and the levels of indirect toxicity of iron showed a significant negative correlation (-0.6848), being that the highest magnitude of negative correlation was at 70 DAE (-0.6161).

Conclusion: There is variability for tolerance to indirect iron toxicity between the irrigated rice genotypes assessed. The breeding program of irrigated rice of Embrapa has been effective in developing genotypes with tolerance by excess iron in the soil over nine years. There is a negative association between the content of dry matter of shoots and the levels of indirect iron toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Irrigation Depths on the Growth of Chrysanthemum, Cultivated in Pots, in a Greenhouse in the Northwest Region of Espírito Santo

Robson Prucoli Posse, Gabriel Fornaciari, Edinei José Armani Borghi, Francielly Valani, Sophia Machado Ferreira da Silva, Evandro Chaves de Oliveira, Geilson Silva Costa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i230069

Chrysanthemum is one of the most important plants in the national and international market of ornamental plants since it has relevant commercial value and presents short cycle and extensive diversity of inflorescences and colors. The present work aimed to evaluate the productive performance of the Puritan cultivar grown in pots under different irrigation depths, in greenhouse conditions in the northwest region of Espírito Santo. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design with 6 treatments defined by crop evapotranspiration daily replacements (ETc) of 50% 75%, 100%; 125%, 150% and 175%, with 20 repetitions (pots) each treatment. An auto compensating trickle irrigation system was used, a dripper per pot, discharging 1.3 liters per hour. The evaluations were made at 90 days after planting, when measurements of fresh and dry mass of roots, fresh and dry mass of shoot system, plant height, stem diameter, dry mass of the flowers and flowers diameter were performed. The analysis of variance at 5% probability, showed significant quadratic effect for the dry matter characteristics of the aerial part and height of the plant and significant linear positive effect for the other evaluated characteristics. Under the conditions of the study, daily replacements of 175% of the crop evapotranspiration, which corresponded to daily average depths of 12.25 mm, conferred the best results in all evaluated parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Regeneration in Tropical Rainforest, Northeastern Brazil

Fabiana Estigarribia, Joselane Príscila Gomes da Silva, Paulo Fernando Rodrigues Cândido, Nelio Domingos da Silva, João Antonio Tanajura Silva, Lúcia de Fatima de Carvalho Chaves

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i230070

Aims: To evaluate the shrub-tree species of natural regeneration in a remnant of Tropical Rain Forest, located in the northeastern region of Brazil.

Study Design:  Systematic sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in a remnant of Tropical Rainforest, categorized as a Forest of Miritiba Wildlife Refuge, located in the municipality of Abreu and Lima, distant approximately 42 km from the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The area has approximately 273.40 ha. The data were collected in November 2016.

Methodology: The data were collected in 12 plots (25 m² each) allocated in 3 transects of 100 m in length, equidistant 50 m from each other, perpendicular to the edge of the weir located inside the fragment. The inclusion level established was a minimum height of 1.0 m and a base circumference at 30.0 cm from the ground (CAB 0.30 m) ≤ 15.0 cm. Three height classes (H) were considered, where Class I included individuals with 1.0 ≤ H ≤ 2.0 m; Class II with 2.0 <H <3.0 m and Class III with H> 3.0 m and CAP <15.0 cm.

Results: A total of 41 species belonging to 24 botanical families and 31 genus were recorded, representing a density of 8,867 ind.ha-1. The five richest families were Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae Anacardiaceae and Sapindaceae. The species with the highest estimated densities were Protium heptaphyllum, Erythroxylum mucronatum and Hirtella racemosa.

Conclusion: Among the species sampled in the regenerating component, which presented higher density and can be used for enrichment of areas in recovery process are Protium heptaphyllum, Erythroxylum mucronatum, Hirtella racemosa, Myrcia tomentosa and Eschweilera ovata.