Open Access Short Research Article

Efficiency of Hydraulic Ram Pumps Made with Alternative Materials

Igor Rozado Bosa, Paola Alfonsa Vieira Lo Monaco, Ismail Ramalho Haddade, Henrique Teodoro Barth, Vinícius Roldi, Gustavo Haddad Souza Vieira, Alberto Chambela Neto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i430076

This study evaluates the effect of different angles of inclination of air chamber and ratios of fall/elevation heights (h/H) on the efficiency of hydraulic ram pumps made with alternative materials. The experiment is divided in two stages. In the first, an entirely randomized design is used, with five replications, in a 3×2 factorial scheme, considered in the composition of the treatments, with combinations of three alternative materials of the air chamber (polyethylene terephthalate bottle, polyvinyl chloride tube and the cylinder of a fire extinguisher) at two angles of inclination (45° and 90º). In the second stage, the experiment is again conducted with an entirely randomized design, with five replications, in a 2×4 factorial scheme, considered in the composition of the treatments, with combinations of two angles of inclination of the air chamber (45° and 90°) in four h/H ratios (1/3, 1/4, 1/5 and 1/6). The alternative material of the air chamber provides the highest efficiency in the first stage. The variables studied are subjected to normality analysis (Shapiro-Wilk) and homoscedasticity (Bartlett), with the T test being performed with the correction of Bonferroni (P < 0.05). The hydraulic ram with a PET bottle camber, inserted at an angle of 90º, submitted to an h/H ratio of between 1/4 and 1/6, provided the highest efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Correlation Analysis of Physical and Physico-Chemical Properties of Cambucá Fruits (Plinia edulis)

Antônio Gustavo de Luna Souto, Maria Helena Menezes Cordeiro, João Paulo Gava Cremasco, Valtânia Xavier Nunes, Keise Barcelas Morais, Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i430077

Aims: This study was to characterize and correlate physical and physico-chemical properties of cambucá fruits (Plinia edulis).

Study Design: Experimental design was completely randomized with fifteen samples of five fruits each.

Place and Duration of Study: Experimental orchard of the Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Viçosa (UFV), located in the municipality of Viçosa, Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais during the month of February 2015.

Methodology: Fruits were sampled when 100% of peels presented yellow-orange color. The following characteristics were evaluated: longitudinal and transverse diameter, total mass of both pulp and seed, pulp color, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, ascorbic acid and carotenoids contents. To verify the degree of correlation between two physico-chemical variables, a Pearson analysis was performed.

Results: Cambucá fruits showed average values of longitudinal and transverse diameter of 37.76 and 44.36 mm, respectively. Fruits’ average mass were 44.12 g and the percentage of pulp was 82.15%. Both soluble solids and titratable acidity presented the respective average values: 10.53 ºBrix, 1.34 mg of citric acid and 100 mL-1 of pulp. Larger cambucá fruits presented higher pulp yield and lower acidity. The increase in ascorbic acid was positively correlated with the contents of soluble solids and carotenoids.

Conclusion: Fruits of cambucá have potential for commercialization, their characteristics are similar to those found in other fruit species native to the Myrtaceae family and already found in the fruit market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Citrus Rootstock in the Santa Luzia Do Induá Community, Capitão Poço-Pará-Brazil

Luane Laíse Oliveira Ribeiro, Letícia Do Socorro Cunha, Wanderson Cunha Pereira, Lucila Elizabeth Fragoso Monfort, Francisca Das Chagas Bezerra De Araújo, Maria Eunice Lima Rocha, Antônio Augusto Rodrigues dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i430078

The municipality of Capitão Poço, located in the state of Pará / Brazil, received the demonization of land from the orange, with citriculture as the main source of income for the producers in the municipality. Among the sectors of citrus production, the production of the rootstock, which is strongly developed in the community of Santa Luzia do Induá, is a highlight in the activity, since this sector is considered as a strong element for the job creation, capital formation, value added and also in regional development, which strengthens the production of seedlings in the municipality. In this sense, the research had as objective to make a survey of the form of production of the rootstock of citrus seedlings, in the community of Santa Luzia do Induá, municipality of Capitão Poço/Pará. Field research was carried out between December 2017 and January 2018 in the community of Santa Luzia do Induá. The research was carried out based on the application of semi-structured questionnaires, addressing aspects on the production of rootstock on the choice, production, management and classification, as well as the production of grafting. Fifty seedlings producers were randomly interviewed, out of a total of approximately 100 nurseries, which guarantees a representative sample unit. It is observed that 48% of the nurserymen consider the thickness as the main factor for the execution of the grafting, and for them the horse is ready when it reaches the thickness of a pencil. Regarding the height, the most used for grafting by the producers (86%) is that between the intervals of 10 to 20 cm. The producers reported that the most used is the lemon tree clove due to its genetic and phytotechnical characteristics. It was noticeable that they are already trying to improve techniques for acquiring higher quality propagation material. To this end, the encouragement of public policies combined with the development of technologies appropriate to the local reality is paramount to increasingly promote seedlings production in the community.

Open Access Original Research Article

General and Specific Combining Abilities for Flower Characters of Capsicum annuum L.

Angela Maria dos Santos Pessoa, Elizanilda Ramalho do Rêgo, Mailson Monteiro do Rêgo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i430079

The study was carried out with the objective of estimating the combinatorial capacity of ornamental pepper (Capsicum. annuum L.) genotypes for flower traits, aiming to identify the best hybrids and the best parents for the synthesis of new populations. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in the Biotechnology Laboratory, Agrarian Center, Federal University of Paraíba (Laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal of Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba), State of Paraíba, Brazil. Seven accessions of Capsicum annuum were hand-crossed. Seven flower traits were evaluated including days for flowering, flower diameter, petal length, number of petals, number of stamens, anther length, and filament length. The diallel analysis using the Griffing method I of the data recorded showed that accessions 001, 004 and 099 were the best for flower characteristics based on their GCA values. There were significant reciprocal effects for days to flowering, filament length and anther length. The additive effects of the genes were predominant for most of the flower characteristics and the non-additive effects for the days for flowering only. Genotypes 001, 004 and 099 are indicated for crosses that aim to increase flower characteristics. In general, these genitors were involved in almost hybrids combinations with best SCA values. Those combinations should be used for to advance genarations in the breeding program. On the other hand, the best hybrids to be release for propagation were: 134 x 004, 137 x 001, 390 x 004, 77.3 x 099, 001 x 390, 001 x 77.3, and 099 x 77.3.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seaweed Extract Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) on the Growth of Watermelon Plants

Antônio Francisco de Mendonça Júnior, Ana Paula Medeiros dos Santos Rodrigues, Rui Sales Júnior, Andréia Mitsa Paiva Negreiros, Marcos Oliveira Bettini, Cláudia Dayane Melo Freitas, Kevison Rômulo da Silva França, Thomaz Rauan Rodrigues Gomes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v31i430080

Aims: The objective of the research was to evaluate the influence of the seaweed extract applications, Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) to the productive development and quality of watermelon plants.

Study Design: Two experiments were carried out. For experiments I and II, the completely randomized design was applyed in factorial schemes 2x6 and 2x4, respectively, with five replications each.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were carried out at the Department of Plant Sciences (DPS) of the Rural Federal University of Semi-Arid (UFERSA), Campus Mossoró – RN, from January to May 2014.

Methodology: Experiment I consisted on seed treatments [soaking in potable water and Acadian®] and application of six doses (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mL L-1); experiment II, a combination of two seed treatments [soaking in potable water and Acadian®] and four periods (0, 7, 10 and 14 days) under the dose of 3.0 mL L-1.

Results: The interaction between seed treatment and application of different doses, presented highest values observed for the variables, plant height, fresh shoot weight and fresh root weight were for A. nodosum (L.). More effects for seed treatment when there is no application of Acadian® is observed. It can be inferred that there is interaction among the factors, since the different parts of the plant respond in different ways to the treatment of seeds and the different periods of application. Also highlighted, when submitted to applications with Acadian®, watermelon plants had a similar effect, with closer values, excluding only the applications spaced in 7 days, which showed more interaction factors.

Conclusion: Seed treatment with Acadian® and the doses of 3.0 and 4 mL L-1 were more efficient in the watermelon seedlings production. Applications in intervals of 7, 10 and 14 days were most promising, regardless the seed treatment.