Open Access Short Research Article

Pollen Viability in Eggplant Using Colorimetric and In vitro Techniques

Ricardo de Normandes Valadares, Lilian Bonfim de Lima, Danieli Andrade Nóbrega, Jordana Antônia dos Santos Silva, Adônis Queiroz Mendes, Ítalo Jhonny Nunes Costa, Dimas Menezes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i130095

The causes of fruit abortion, in eggplants, may be related to the absence of viable pollen under high temperatures, common in the Northeast region of Brazil, resulting in a reduction in the number of fruits per plant and consequently in productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the techniques of identification of PV – pollen viability in eggplant, as well as to correlate these results with the FFI – Fruit Fixation Index, NFP – Number of Fruits per Plant and PP – Production per Plant obtained in cultivation under high temperatures. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil, between September and December 2017. The experiment design was a randomized block design with four replications, in the 7 x 4 factorial scheme (7 genotypes x 4 evaluation of PV) containing four plants per experimental plot. The results showed that the different techniques used detected viable pollens in the genotypes evaluated in smaller and in larger proportions. The highest percentages were observed in the treatments with CA – Carmine Acetic and AS – Alexander Solution and these overestimated the PV (>90%). In the test with TTC – 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (25%), the viability estimation was equivalent to the in vitro germination test, however the genetic correlations were null and/or very low between these techniques and the FFI, NFP and PP traits. The genetic correlations between the results obtained with CA and AS with FFI, NFP and PP under conditions of high temperatures were high and positive and suggest that the selection based on PV only, except with the use of TTC solution, may be efficient for indirect selection of genotypes with high FFI, NFP and PP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring the Maturation of Crambe Seeds Using X-ray Image Analysis

Bruno Antonio Lemos de Freitas, Tássia Fernanda Santos Neri Soares, André Dantas de Medeiros, José Geraldo de Araújo Ferreira Filho, Kamylla Calzolari Ferreira, Camila Andrade Fialho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i130091

The application of modern and efficient techniques to access seed physical and physiological information has contributed to new advances in the agricultural sector. The objective of this study was to evaluate morphometric parameters obtained from the X-Ray analysis using crambe seeds harvested at different maturation stages and to relate them to seed physiological potential. Seeds harvested at different maturation stages were evaluated using X-Ray test, germination, first germination count, germination speed index, root protrusion velocity and accelerated aging. The Principal Components Analysis was applied to data collected. The results demonstrated that the X-Ray analysis allowed to visualize internal morphology of crambe seeds. Differences between seeds harvested at different maturation levels were observed. Correlations between physical variables were verified, such as seed area with germination (r = 0.96). The use of X-Ray analysis combined with semi-automated analysis is efficient to differentiate crambe seeds in different maturation stages. The morphometric parameters are related to the physiological quality of crambe seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corn Cultivation for Silage: Evaluation of Elemental Composition in the Soil and Plants by Neutron Activation Analysis

Wellington Ferrari da Silva, Maria Ângela de B. C. Menezes, Douglas José Marques

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i130092

Corn cultivation for silage requires special soil management and constant applications of fertilizers and agricultural pesticides to achieve satisfactory yield levels. This study was carried out on a farm that has grown corn for several years. The soil does not have adequate management in terms of fertility and fertilization. The matrices collected were soil, roots, leaves and grains in a corn silage area to investigate which chemical elements are present and their concentrations. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) by k0-standardization method was applied on elemental concentration determination. In this technique, the sample is submitted to a neutron flux, in order to produce radioactive isotopes of the nuclei present in the original sample. In the k0 method, the sample is irradiated together with a neutron flux monitor, usually gold (Au), in the same irradiation position and standards of the interested element are not necessary. Several samples can be irradiated simultaneously when stacked inside the irradiation vessel, intercalated with neutron flux monitors. The irradiations were carried out in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor at Nuclear Technology Development Centre/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CDTN / CNEN). In the analysis, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn were identified in the samples. Although the site studied lacks adequate management of soil fertility and fertilization, Ca, Cu, K, Mo and Zn were determined and their presences are important because they are essential for corn development. Adequate content for the cultivation of silage corn were verified by assessing these nutrients and their translocation in the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Price of Basic Food Basket in Brazil and the World (2003-2017): Causes and Consequences

Nayane Jaqueline Costa Maia, Gabriela de Almeida Mourão, Thiago de Andrade Águas, Jeferson Alves Martins, Larisse Medeiros Gonçalves, Pedro Henrique da Silva Monteiro

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i130093

Aims: Objective this work is to understand the price dynamics of foods basket products in Brazil and the world, based on multivariate analysis, for 14 years, with data from governmental and non-governmental organizations.

Methodology: Data used for world food prices were taken from official documents provided by governmental and non-governmental organizations. The data were submitted to statistical analysis by Microsoft Excel 2016® and Minitab 16®. The statistical model used in the work is multiple linear regression. When significant linear regression was found, the parameters were compared by means of simple linear regression analysis, a significance of 5% probability (P<0.05) was considered.

Results: The results showed that the items that most cost the foods basket in the world are meat, fruits, and vegetables, and it was noticed that with each increase of 1 dollar in the price of these products, increased 2 dollars in the price food basket. And in Brazil it would not be different, these same products represented an increase in the price of the basic food basket in more than 300% (adding meat) and 110,67% (adding fruits and vegetables).

Conclusion: Concluding that the increase of the basic food basket in Brazil and in the World is directly correlated with meat, fruits, and vegetables. Being an added value caused by the high cost of investment in these sectors, which require very high investment.

Open Access Original Research Article

How do Native Trees Establish on Degraded Caatinga Sites?

Francisco das Chagas Vieira Sales, Olaf Andreas Bakke, Ivonete Alves Bakke, Bruna Vieira de Souza, Cheila Deisy Ferreira, Erik Alves Bakke

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i130094

This study evaluated tree establishment by seeding in manure-enriched substrate or by seedling planting in manure-enriched holes in two experiments carried out in Patos (PB), Brazil, in degraded Caatinga sites. Experiment one evaluated the effects of the joint seeding (absence and presence of joint seeding, but no singular seeding of any of species) of four tree species (Mimosa tenuiflora, Poincianela pyramidalis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa and Tabebuia aurea), at two levels of cattle manure (absence and presence) in a site protected from grazing. The 2x2 (absence and presence of joint seeding, and absence and presence of manure addition to the soil) factorial experiment was used with four treatments groups in two replicates to which five completely randomised blocks were assigned tentatively to control environmental heterogeneity and reduce the experimental error (e.g.: soil or fertility or erosion slope). Additional data set from six other similar adjacent blocks (size, number of treatments and plots, and level of environmental degradation), submitted to previous and current overgrazing by small ruminants (browsing goats and grazing sheep) was analysed independently. Experiment two, located in an overgrazed site currently protected from grazing, evaluated tree seedling establishment (natural and that resulting from planted Mimosa tenuiflora and Poincianella pyramidalis seedlings in manure-enriched holes according to a randomised completely blocked design with four treatments in two replicates (four controls: when no tree seedling planting occurred, and when seedling planting of one of the two tree species occurred) to which six blocks were assigned tentatively to control environmental heterogeneity and reduce the experimental error. Tree seedling establishment, natural or resulting from seeding, in plots enriched or not with manure and protected or not from grazing, was not observed during three years. Planting of M. tenuiflora accelerated the process of tree establishment, resulting in 36% survival rate and 177.5cm length growth at the end of the third year, while the other tree seeding or planting treatments resulted in no established plants. Observations should continue to determine the period suitable for making degraded Caatinga sites once again available for production.