Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Storage Duration on The Toxicity of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) Oil to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

Anderson Mathias Holtz, José Romário de Carvalho, Tatiane Pereira Cofler, Claudiane Martins da Rocha, Fernanda Atalane de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i230097

The objective of this study was to evaluate the storage time of Moringa oleifera oil on the acaricidal activity on Tetranychus urticae. Was used amber bottle for storage of oil which remained in a room at 25°C. The storage times considered in the experiment were 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after extraction. At each time a suspension at the concentration of 3% (v/v) was applied on the mite. A completely randomized design with 5 treatments (storage times) was used, containing 8 replicates, composed of 12 females per replicate. The application was carried out by spraying. Mortality data were submitted to the sphericity test and then to analysis of variance, followed by non-linear regression. The analysis of variance revealed that the time factor of storage significantly affected the mortality of the mite, according to an exponential model. Mortality was increasing, reaching a mean of 74.16 ± 8.37% at 120 days. The oil of M. oleifera is promising for the control of T. urticae, improving the acaricidal activity over time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Different Dilutions of Spinosad Bait against Two Fruit-fly Species (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Adalton Raga, Fernando Berton Baldo, Sara Braga e Silva, Larissa Ketlin da Silva Ferreira, Leonardo Tambones Galdino, Mário Eidi Sato

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i230098

Toxic bait is an alternative to manage fruit flies (Tephritidae) in orchards and in wide-area programmes. The mortality caused by different dilutions of spinosad baits on adults of Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Tephritidae) were compared with a hydrolysed protein (BioAnastrepha) and water in laboratory. Females and males of C. capitata and A. grandis were exposed to Success® 0.02CB (GF-120 NF Naturalyte fruit-fly, 0.02% spinosad) diluted in distilled water (v/v) at 1:1.5; 1:4.5; 1:9.0 and 1:18.0. Spinosad dilutions at 1: 1.5 and 1: 4.5 showed similar effects and provided 100% adult mortality 24 hours after exposure to the baits. Anastrepha grandis was more susceptible to spinosad baits than C. capitata. Females of C. capitata were less susceptible to spinosad diluted at 1: 1.5, 1: 4.5 and 1: 90, than C. capitata males and both sexes of A. grandis. The values of lethal times (LT50) varied for the different dilutions of spinosad for both fruit-fly species; however, with different patterns for each species. The LT50 values of the two highest concentrations (1: 1.5, 1: 4.5) of spinosad bait were similar for fruit flies of both sexes of each species, but a significant difference was observed between species, with higher LT50 values for C. capitata. In general, the cumulative mortalities of spinosad baits increased at 240, 360, 480 minutes and 24 hours after exposure. BioAnastrepha was shown to be toxic to both species, especially for A. grandis, killing 82% of females and 72% of males at 24 hours after exposure. Spinosad bait may be used in different dilutions to manage C. capitata and A. grandis, with similar toxicity for the two highest spinosad concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Corchorus olitorius L. of Burkina Faso

M. Kiebre, B. Sawadogo, Z. Kiebre, N. Sawadogo, B. Kabore, M. Sawadogo, P. Bationo-Kando

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i230099

Corchorus olitorius is more and more cultivated in Burkina Faso because of its socio - economic interest. Hence the objective of this study which will contribute to improve the knowledge of the genetic diversity of the species in Burkina Faso. To this end, seventeen SSR markers were used to characterize ninety-six (96) accessions of the four phytogeographic sectors of Burkina Faso. These accessions consist of 16 accessions of the variety C. olitorius var insicifolius and 80 accessions of the variety C. olitorius var olitorius. The results of the analysis of the diversity of microsatellite markers tested, they were seized sixteen (16) of the seventeen (17) SSRs are polymorphic with a rate of polymorphism of 92.19 % and number of 53 alleles with a mean of three (3) alleles per locus. As for the Shannon diversity index, with an average of 1.05, it is between 0.53 for the HK-27 marker and 1.90 for the HK-19 marker. The polymorphism information content (PIC) potential ranged from 0.11 for the HK-12 marker to 0.49 for the HK-6 marker with an average of 0.32. A structure of diversity into three groups regardless of phytogeographic areas or botanical variety has always been.

Open Access Original Research Article

Residual Dry Matter, Weeds and Soil Aggregates after Winter Cover Crop

Edleusa Pereira Seidel, João Henrique Silva Caetano, Arthur Schafer Karpinski, Willian Dos Reis

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i230100

Soil quality maintenance in a no-tillage system (NTS) depends on cover crops. They are essential for crop rotation, affect several soil attributes, and contribute to phytosanitary control. However, cover crop efficacy is influenced by their root function and the presence of plant straw on soil surfaces. The objective of this study was to compare various winter cover crops in terms of their effects on dry mass yield, straw persistence after 40 d, weed incidence, and soil aggregate stability. The soil tested was an Oxisol Ustox Hapludox in Western Paraná State, southern Brazil. A randomized block design was used with four replicates and six treatments (fallow, black oat, fodder turnip, field pea, common vetch, and fodder turnip + black oat). Cover crops were managed 88 d after sowing. Dry mass (DM) and residual dry mass (RDM) were measured at 20 d and 40 d after harvest. Aggregate stability and weed type and density were evaluated after 40 d of management (DAM). The results showed that black oat obtained the lowest decomposition; therefore, a potential species to be used in the system of crop rotation in the no-tillage. The consorted of fodder turnip and black oat provided relatively higher dry mass yields and improved soil aggregation. Cover crops reduced the incidence of weeds, being important for no-till sustainability.

Open Access Review Article

Current Status of the Occurrence and Reaction Root-knot Nematodes in the Main Botanical Families of Medicinal Plants

Cristina dos Santos Ribeiro Costa, Antonio Elton da Silva Costa, Ana Maria Maciel dos Santos, Jacqueline Wanessa de Lima Pereira, Rejane Rodrigues da Costa e Carvalho, José Luiz Sandes de Carvalho Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i230096

Medicinal plants are described such as those produce substances capable of provoking reactions in the human body leading to the cure of diseases. Like as cultivated species, medicinal plants can be attacked by various pests and diseases, affecting the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of their curative properties, as well as productivity. Phytonematodes are one of the main factors limiting the productivity of cultivated plants. In medicinal species this pathogens group has caused damage in the sanity of the plants interfering in the quality of the compounds produced. Among them, due to the high parasitism degree, the species of the genus Meloidogyne, popularly known as root-knot nematodes. Among the management strategies of these phytopathogens, biological and cultural controls have low efficiency reports. Likewise, chemical control is not indicated due to its high cost, besides, its high toxicity and risk of environmental pollution. Therefore, the most effective control method is the use of resistant plant species or cultivars. Once these species are identified, they can be used as antagonists or incorporated into the soil, aiming to decrease the nematode population in infested areas. The use of resistant medicinal species allows little or no reproduction of Meloidogyne spp., providing effective control in the field. Other advantages are the reduction of production costs, and the protection of the environment against pollution caused by chemical waste.