Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Maize Straw or Animal Manure as an Alternative to Gypsum to Ameliorate Saline-Sodic Soils

Kennedy Nascimento Jesus, Tiago Diniz Althoff, Aldrin Martin Pérez Marin, Antonio Raimundo Sousa, Júlio Cesar Rodrigues Martins, Renisson Neponuceno Araújo Filho, Dario Costa Primo, Rômulo Simões Cesar Menezes, Antonio Celso Dantas Antonino, Everardo Valadares de Sá Barreto Sampaio

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i330102

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of animal manure or maize straw, combined or not with gypsum, on the recovery of the productive capacity of a Fluvic Entisol affected by salts cultivated with maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in PVC columns in a 10 x 4 factorial scheme, with ten treatments and four replicates (gypsum, 15 t ha-1 manure, 30 t ha-1 manure, 15 t ha-1 maize straw, 30 t ha-1 maize straw, 15 t ha-1 gypsum plus manure, 30 t ha-1 gypsum plus manure, 15 t ha-1 gypsum plus maize straw, 30 t ha-1 gypsum plus maize straw and control, no input) in a randomized block design. Soils that received maize straw increased both the soil water infiltration rate and the amount of salts leached at the bottom of the column compared to soils that received gypsum. However, maize straw reduced the growth of maize plants, probably due to the immobilization of nutrients. In soils that received 15 t ha-1 manure, the growth of maize plants was higher compared to soils that received gypsum, indicating that the application and organic inputs can improve soil physical conditions, reduce salinity and promote plant growth without the need for the acquisition of gypsum, which gives farmers more autonomy and reduces costs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ginning Efficiency and Fiber Quality Properties of Cotton as Affected by Roller Gin Stand Feeding Methods and Seed Cotton Grade

Aly A. A. El-Banna

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i330103

Aims: Attaining the highest ginning efficiency process and fiber quality properties of Egyptian cotton cultivar ̔ Giza 88᾿during feeding methods of roller gin stand is the ultimate objective of the community of cotton field industry for local uses, but the productivity of the three feeding methods of conventional roller gin stand used in ginning process still limited.

Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to overcome this obstacle.

Study Design: This investigation was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replicates and analyzed as a factorial experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant Production Department, the Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University, Egypt during 2017.

Methods: Four seed cotton grades; namely, Good to Fully Good (G/FG), Good + ¼ (G + ¼), Good (G) and Good -¼ (G - ¼) belonging to ̔ Giza 88᾿ cotton cultivar were used in this work. The extra-long staple Egyptian cotton variety with the pedigree and origin of cotton Giza 88 (Giza 77 x Giza 45 B) was used. This work was carried out in 2017. About half cantar (1 cantar = 157.5 kg) of each seed cotton grade as a bulk sample was thoroughly mixed and checked and  reclassified by a committee of three expert classers belong to the Cotton Arbitration for Testing General Organization (CATGO), in the gin plan.

Results: The obtained results indicated that the gin stand's hand feeding method (control treatment); results in significant increases the highest mean values of the gin stand capacity (0.97 kg lint/inch/h), Lint % (36.59%) and lint grade code (27.33) and the lowest mean value of the ginning time (1.42 h/cantar). Meanwhile, the Belt (2 row) as a mechanical feeding method; gave rise to the lowest mean value of gin stand capacity (0.89 kg lint/inch/h). The differences in fiber length parameters (Upper half mean length and short fiber index), fiber elongation %, micronaire reading, yellowness degree (+b) were not significantly affected. The highest seed cotton grade (Good / Fully Good) gave the better lint cotton grade and the best fiber properties tested by HVI instrument of ̔ Giza 88᾿ cotton cultivar.

Conclusion: The hand feeding method of seed cotton to the gin stand surpassed all studied feeding methods in gin stand productivity, lint percentage and the most HVI fiber properties are better classer grade. Though, this method is recommended to be used specially with the high levels of the extra-long cottons.

Cylinder feeding method ranked first in order among studied mechanical method and it could be recommended for ginning medium and low seed cotton level.

Belt (2 rows) is the preferred feeding method regardless of gin stand productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Caryopsis Germination in Different Methodologies of Energy-sugarcane Crossing (Saccharum officinarum L.)

Robson da Silva Ramos, Mateus Ferraz Flôr, Catarina Ramos Soares, Gheysa Coelho Silva, Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo, Djalma Euzébio Simões Neto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i330104

Aims: To compare and evaluate the germination index of caryopsis obtained by means of different crossing methods and to determine the quantitative of seeds to be used to compose the base population for selection among families by the Simplified Selection System (SSS) method.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted under a completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: Devaneio Station of Sugarcane Flowering and Crossing and Experimental Sugarcane Station of Carpina, between February 2018 and December 2018.

Methodology: 27 crosses were performed, being eight biparental, ten polycrossing and nine self-fertilized. Germination tests were carried out in the greenhouse. From each crossing, four samples were sown with 0.5g caryopsis. The number of germinated caryopsis per box, five and thirty days after sowing, was evaluated to estimate the percentage of germination (% G).

Results: In the first evaluation, the C27 crossing (53.73%) presented the highest average. The caryopsis obtained by self-fertilization (12.82%) presented the highest germination average, followed by the polycrossing (10.88%) and the biparental crosses (9.99%). In the second evaluation, it was found that the crosses C8 (76.74%), C27 (61.02%), C3 (53.99%) and C13 (49.65%) presented with averages high. The highest percentage of germination was verified by the biparental method (31.10%), followed by the self-fertilizations (21.35%) and the polycrossing (20.43%).

Conclusion: Only crosses that show high germination are recommended for the composition of the families that will be evaluated through the Simplified System of Selection; caryopsis obtained through self-fertilization germinate rapidly compared to the methods of the polycrossing and biparental with respect to crosses between selected energy-sugarcane parents; biparental crosses between selected energy-sugarcane parents tend to have higher fertility of caryopsis than those obtained by means of polycrossing or self-fertilization; the families C1, C3, C8, C13, C26 and C27 can be used to compose the base populations in the SSS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Mechanical Resistance Penetration after Fifteen Years with Previous Crops and Tillage Systems and Productivity of Green Corn Cob in Northeast Brazil

Alceu Pedrotti, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho, Sara Julliane Ribeiro Assunção, Raimundo Rodrigues Gomes Filho, Fernanda Cristina Caparelli de Oliveira, Francisco Sandro Rodrigues Holanda, Victor Casimiro Piscoya, Moacyr Cunha Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i330105

Conservation systems for less soil movement and when associated with previous crops may reduce the effects of soil compaction. The objective of this work was to evaluate soil mechanical resistance penetration (MRP) in different cropping systems associated with previous corn crop after fifteen years. The experimental design was composed of experimental strips with subdivided plots, combining three soils management systems: CC- conventional cultivation, MC- minimum cultivation and NT- no-tillage, and four species of crops antecedent to maize for the production of commercial ears of green corn. In the determination of soil MRP, the electronic penetrometer (FALKER model SoloTrack PLG 5200) was used, with readings up to a depth of 400 mm. The results showed that there was a significant effect on the MRP values of the soil when submitted to the different cropping systems and previous crops at the end of fifteen years. The lowest MRP values were located in the superficial layers in the CC and MC. The NT cultivar system showed higher MRP values, at depth 0-100 mm. At conditions of tableland, after fifteen years, it was observed that the NT system provides better corn productivity levels combined with lower MRP values along the profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance of Exotic Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Breeding Lines for Short Growth Development

Md. Manik Sarker, Lutful Hassan, Md. Mamunur Rashid, Syed Nazrul Islam, Tilak Kumar Ghosh, Sharmin Sultana

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v32i330106

This work aims to study the genetic parameters for yield and yield contributing characters in thirty-two early maturing rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines. The morphological data were analysed by different statistical plant breeding software’s that were reliable and faster in analysis. The line CT 18173-1-9-1-3-6-M had the tallest; IR 82489-594-3-2-2 had the earlier flowering line but BP 10620F-BB4-13-BB8 the early maturing one. The highest effective tillers hill-1 and yield plant-1 was found in BP 10620F-BB4-13-BB8. Number of filled grains panicle-1 and number of unfilled grains panicle-1 exhibited high Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) and Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV). Small differences between GCV and PCV were recorded for all the characters studied which indicated less environmental influence. The characters viz., 1000 seed weight and days to maturity exhibited high heritability and number of filled grains panicle-1 measured high genetic advance. The thirty-two lines were assigned into three clusters, which contained a different number of lines. Among the lines, BP 10620F-BB4-12-BB8 possessed the highest selection score index contrary to IR 79201-49-1-1-1 which had the lowest selection index score. The overall evaluation for the lines revealed that the best line was BP 10620F-BB4-12-BB8 and it can be used for future breeding program or farmer’s field cultivation.