Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Copper-Based Pesticides to Control Fungal Diseases of Soybean in Northern Brazil

Warlles Domingos Xavier, João Vitor de Souza Silva, Claudinei Martins Guimarães, Jorge Luís Sousa Ferreira, Thiago Albuquerque Turozi, Solano Colodel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i230137

At level word fungal diseases that affect soybean crop are one of the main causes of low productivity and annual losses may reach 21% of total production. In this context, the objective of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of copper-based protectors associated with fungicides to control soybean diseases such as: asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi), target spot of soybean (Corynespora cassiicola) and cercospora leaf blight (Cercospora kikuchii) + frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina) + brown spot (Septoria glycines), which together were considered as late-crop cycle diseases, with impact on grain yield, in the region of Aparecida do Rio Negro – TO, Brazil. Treatments were composed of different rates of copper-based pesticides associated with fungicides like Azimut® (first application), Orkestra® (second application), Ativum® (third application) and Horos® (fourth application) in soybean. Diseases were identified and crop damage evaluations on leaves were performed using LI-COR® portable meter 7 days after the fourth application. At physiological maturity, grain yield was evaluated. Combined rates of fungicides + Unizeb Gold® (1.5 kg ha-1), Difere® (0.5 L ha-1), and NHT® Copper Super at a rate higher than 0.109 L ha-1, were effective to control late crop-cycle diseases in soybean. Associated applications of fungicides + 0.219 L/ha of NHT® Copper Super reduced the severity of Asian soybean rust, target spot of soybean and late crop-cycle diseases with a greater increase in grain yield (4.5 Mg ha-1).

Open Access Original Research Article

Alterations of Biochemical Composition of Leaf and Stem of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) by Colletotrichum destructivum O’Gara in Nigeria

A. C. Amadioha, Enyiukwu David Nwazuo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i230138

Colletotrichum destructivum during pathogenesis reduced the nutrient values of cowpea leaf and stem. The protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre contents of the leaf decreased from 34.91%, 5.42%, 43.61% and 19.46% in the uninfected leaf samples to 20.40%, 2.15%, 37.03% and 15.53% in the infected leaf respectively whereas the moisture and ash contents increased by 10.88% and 11.15% in the uninfected leaf sample to 12.51% and 11.24% respectively in the infected leaf samples. The composition of zinc, sodium, magnesium, iron, and potassium in the leaf increased whereas calcium and phosphorous decreased after inoculation with the test fungus. It reduced the protein content from 15.64% in the healthy stem tissue to 12.69% in the infected one, fat from 1.29% to 0.78%, crude fibre from 16.87% to14.62%, and carbohydrate from 31.11% to 25.39%. Also, the fungus caused a reduction of the calcium and phosphorus contents of the healthy stem tissue from 2.09 mg and 326.50 mg to 1.19 mg and 299.10 mg respectively. Infection of the stem with the pathogen led to increasing moisture, potassium, sodium, zinc, iron, and magnesium contents from 11.80%, 230.12 mg, 111. 28 mg, 1.66 mg, 0.89 mg and 0.95 mg to 12.65% , 364.21 mg, 203.64 mg, 3.02, 1.52 mg, and 2.18 mg respectively. The average loss of the major nutrients; protein, fat, and carbohydrate was more in the leaf than stem, 34.29% and 18.14%  respectively 8 weeks after planting (WAP).

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Analysis for Economically Important Traits of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Ratoon Crop

Abdullah Azam, Farooq Ahmad Khan, Aqeel Afzal Khan, Smi Ullah

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i230139

Study on correlation and path coefficient analysis for cane yield and yield related traits in 20 accessions of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) ratoon crop was conducted in the field of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Analysis of variance indicated highly significant differences (p = 0.01) among the accessions for all the traits as shown in Table 2. Among the traits studied cane weight had positive correlation both at genotypic and phenotypic level with plant height, leaf area, cane diameter, no. of nodes per plant, internodal distance, juice contents dry matter contents and bagasse weight (Table 3). Also cane weight has negative correlation with no. of tillers per plant and no. of millable canes per plant significant at phenotypic level (Table 3). The study of path coefficient analysis for yield related traits depicted that baggas weight exerts maximum direct effect on cane yield followed by juice contents and internodal distance and indirect effects of these traits via each other were also found maximum compared to other traits (Table 4) while Dry matter contents, Leaf area and No. of tillers per plant had negative direct effect on cane yield. Cluster analysis revealed that cluster II ( BF-129, CPF-234, CP-77-400, TRITON and SPSG-26) showed highest values (Table 7) for most of the traits like plant height, leaf area, cane diameter, No. of nodes, juice contents, dry matter contents, bagasse weight and cane weight. The similar trend is also shown by PCA biplot. So best performing sugarcane accessions like cluster II viz BF-129, CPF-234, CP-77-400, TRITON and SPSG-26 if selected for breeding against highly correlated variables of bagasse weight, juice contents and internodal distance with cane weight, can increase our yield qualitatively and quantitatively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Banana ‘Prata-Anã’ Subjected to Hydrothermal Treatment

Juceliandy Mendes da Silva Pinheiro, Gisele Polete Mizobutsi, Flávia Soares Aguiar, Maria Luisa Mendes Rodrigues, Mariana Oliveira de Jesus, Lorena Gabriela Coelho de Queiroz, Edson Hiydu Mizobutsi, Sarah Nadja Araújo Fonseca, Pablo Fernando Santos Alves

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i230140

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of hydrothermal treatment applied to banana ‘Prata-Anã’ before refrigerated storage.

Study Design: The employed experimental design was the completely randomized type (CRD) and composed of 4 repeats with 4 fruits, in a 5 x 4 +1 factorial scheme, with five storage days (days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) at 25°C after removal from the refrigerated chamber, four immersion temperatures and one control (fruits without hydrothermal treatment).

Study Location and Duration: The experiment was conducted in the Post-Harvest Physiology Laboratory of the State University of Montes Claros between March and June 2017.

Methodology: The bananas were harvested and separated into 4-fruit bouquets, which were immersed in water at 50, 52, 54 and 56°C for 2 minutes; fruits without hydrothermal treatment were used as control. Each bouquet was placed in polyolefin membrane packs that were then contained in boxes and stored in chambers at 10oC and RH of 80% for 25 days. After the 25 days, the fruits were taken out of the chamber and stored at 25oC. During the 25oC storage, physical and chemical analyses were performed.

Results: On the day of removal from the refrigerated chamber, all bananas, regardless of treatment, presented a yellowish color. The temperature of 56oC resulted in greater fresh mass loss and higher solute extravasation values. Lower chilling index values and higher vitamin C values were found as the immersion temperature increased.

Conclusion: The full ripening process of banana ‘Prata-Anã’ occurred after removal from the refrigerated chamber in all hydrothermal treatments and with lower chilling index values.

Open Access Review Article

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Hedgerows in Urban Areas

Paullyne Charllotte Gonçalves Celestino, Lúcia de Fatima de Carvalho Chaves, André Luiz Alves de Lima Galdino, Jéssica de Oliveira Souza, Uaine Maria Félix dos Santos, Djailson Silva da Costa Júnior, Luciana Cassimiro Bezerra de Lima, Anália Carmem Silva de Almeida, Carlos Roberto de Lima

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i230141

The research aimed to analyze the maintenance, composition, pruning, planting aspects and architectural elements on urban hedgerows. This study was carried out in an area of Imbiribeira, Recife, PE, Brazil, during six months. The survey was conducted in an area of 30 city blocks (37.024 hectares). The application of the questionnaire was directed to people residing, working, or owning real estate that contained hedgerows. Maintenance (person with the responsibility of pruning and maintenance of the hedge and types of maintenance performed on the hedges); Plant species aspects (species used were classified into groups of plant species: arboreal, shrub, herbaceous and climbing plants); Composition (homogeneous or heterogeneous); Pruning (maintenance or topiary); Planting aspects (planting alignment, spacing rhythm and dimensions of the hedge). In the study area, 30 blocks were sampled, where the presence of hedgerows was observed in 18 of them. The people responsible for the maintenance and management of hedgerows were mostly non-professional workers. The practice of watering hedgerows was found in 95.24% of the visited properties. The use fertilizer was found in 28.57% of the cases and only 4.76% of the properties use pesticide products due to phytosanitary problems. Most of the hedgerows had a homogeneous composition. Topiary pruning is the most practiced treatment on the hedgerows, with a frequency of 82.28% in the study area. The quincux planting with no definite spacing rhythm was the most found. The most observed Planting Alignment in the study area was in line. The most observed Spacing Rhythm was the one with no rhythm of planting. Although hedgerows are widely used in urban and rural areas, studies on their maintenance, composition, structure, ecological importance and relevance to biodiversity conservation are scarce.