Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Plant Spacing on Growth and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Submerged Condition

Bhuneshwar Verma, L. K. Ramteke, M. Shahid

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i330142

The experiment was conducted to find out the effect of plant spacing on the performance of rice variety IR-64 and IR64-Sub1 under conventional and Submerged condition at the National Rice Research Institute (NRRI), Cuttack, Odisha during the Rabi season of 2018. Different planting densities were maintained using different spacing's. These include (S1) 15 cm × 10 cm, (S2) 15 cm × 20 cm. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications spacing of 15 cm × 10 cm with produced the highest grain yield of 350 gm-2 in submerged condition on IR64-Sub1 rice cultivar, which was significantly higher than the yield with recommended density (15 cm × 10 cm with IR64 Sub1). This yield was increased due to higher number of panicles m-2. This result suggests that higher planting density (15 cm×10 cm) rather than increased number of seedling hill-1 is necessary for getting higher yield of IR-64Sub1 rice cultivar in continuous submerged condition (where V1=IR 64, V2=IR-64 Sub1, S1=15 cm×10 cm, S2=20 cm×15 cm).

Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrogen Contribution by Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) Genotypes in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

Agah Boniface Unimke, Magaji Yusuf Tagwai, Jeremiah Idongesit Mbre

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i330143

Most grain legumes irrespective of their ability to fix substantial amount of nitrogen to the soil, could impact negatively on the soil nitrogen balance, particularly if the fix nitrogen is exported from the field with harvested biomass (Shoot, root, grain/kernel). Thus, for agronomic purposes, it is important to quantify the potential amount of nitrogen from this source that will become available to the soil for subsequent crop uptake and/or ecosystem balance. The field trial was undertaken at the teaching and research field of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) Samaru Zaria in the wet planting season of 2011 and 2012. The treatments consist of ten groundnut genotypes (SAMNUT 24, SAMNUT 22, ARRORSICGX-SM 00017/5/P15/P2, SAMNUT 10, ICIAR 7B, ARRORSICGX 000201/5/P4P10, SAMNUT 21, 6AT, SAMNUT 23 and SAMNUT 14), and two rates (0 and 30 kg N ha-1) of nitrogen (urea) fertilizer arrange in a split plot design. Nitrogen balance was estimated as the difference in nitrogen fix by the plant and nitrogen content of kernels/haulms. Results of the analysis of variance indicate that there was significant variation among the selected groundnut genotypes in their net contribution of nitrogen in both 2011 and 2012 at instances where both the groundnut kernel and haulms were exported from the field. Nitrogen contributions by the genotypes were not consistence in both years. In 2011, while SAMNUT 14 left the highest value of 9.79 kg N ha-1, ICIAR 7B returned the highest value in 2012. ICGX-SM 00017/5/P15/P2 (-16.55 kg N ha-1) and SAMNUT 22 (-56.07 kg N ha-1) contributed the least amount of nitrogen in 2011 and 2012 respectively when the kernel were removed from the field. On the other hand, 6AT was relatively stable in both years, and contributed close to 1 kg N ha-1. Even though negative nitrogen balances were reported at instances where the kernels were exported from the field, a more severe N depleting effect was observed when both haulms and kernels were removed from the field. Although, negative N balance was predominant at both rates (0 and 30 kg N ha-1) of N application, but the average nitrogen contribution was significantly higher (-1.10 kg N ha-1) with the application of starter nitrogen than the control (-13.23 kg N ha-1). In view of these findings, groundnut genotypes 6 AT, SAMNUT 14 and ICIAR 7B could be elite genotypes if building a resilience sustainable ecosystem is a priority due to their high biological nitrogen fixing abilities and nitrogen contributing potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability and Constraints of Quail Egg Production in Southwestern Nigeria

S. O. Adeoti, O. I. Baruwa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i330144

The study was conducted in Southwestern Nigeria, to analyze the profitability and constraints of quail egg production in the study area. A multistage sampling technique was used in selecting 90 respondents used in the study. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, likert scale and budgetary analysis. The result indicated that majority (66.7%) of the respondents fall below the age of 50 years, 70% were male, 81.1% of the respondents were married. Considerable number of the quail farmer had post secondary education (86.70%). The result further revealed that 56.7% used cage system of production and 48.9% had between 2-4 years of rearing experience this signify that quail farming is a new enterprise in the area. The result further stated that quails business was profitable with Operating expenses ratio, rate of return to investment, benefit cost ratio and profitability index to be 0.53, 0.84, 1.84 and 0.46 respectively.

Constraints to quails farming in the study area includes: poor marketing, high cost of feeds, poor quality of day old chick/high mortality rate and others. The study recommended that any measures geared toward reducing the cost of feeds will increase their profit margin. Government on her part is advise to assist research institutes to come out with breed of quail that are prolific and disease resistant also a good system of marketing should be established.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Low-cost Drip Irrigation System

O. Lasisi, O. D. Isinkaye, B. O. Fati

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i330145

The localized irrigation is the artificial application of water to the root zone of plants for the purpose of supplying the essential moisture requirement for plant growth. The system makes the production and availability of food crops, citrus and vegetables possible throughout the year on small and medium scale basis at an affordable cost. In places and periods of water scarcity, low-cost drip irrigation can be used for the economic growing of vegetables, citrus and food crops all –round the year. This paper aimed at developing a low-cost drip irrigation system to empower the small and medium scale farmers to produce crops during offseason at minimum operational cost with less human efforts. The field area of 126.4 m2 was properly cleared, stumped, ploughed, harrowed and leveled. The leveling was carried out to allow unobstructed flow and evenly distribution of water to the root of plants. The system does not only reduce water loss but also conserve water during the period of scarcity. The controlled moisture available to the plant at low soil tension results in faster growth, higher yields, better quality and more environmentally and health friendly. The system improves the penetration of water into problematic soils and reduces substantially deep percolation and runoff losses. The system also saves water, money, time and makes provision for all- season farming. The topography of the field was flat with its suitable soil texture, texture, retention capacity and pump for this work was designed and selected to be 1 hp. The system was developed using a simple principle of water flow through gravity to drip out water at regulated interval to irrigate farmland. The drum has 214 litres capacity and 121 emitters. The total cost of production was estimated to be ₦50, 790 which is affordable by small and medium scale farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling and Biomass Quantification in Eucalyptus saligna Smith Stand at the End Rotation in the South of Brazil

Dione Richer Momolli, Mauro Valdir Schumacher, Aline Aparecida Ludvichak, Elias Frank Araújo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i330146

The quantification of wood stock and other components of biomass is fundamental for forest planning. Given the difficulty of obtaining these data, the present study aims at the formulation of equations and the estimation of the different components of biomass, volume with and without bark, form factor and height of the trees at the end rotation. The study was carried out in the municipality of São Gabriel state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil with Eucalyptus saligna 10-year-old. The experimental design of the inventory and biomass quantification were completely randomized. In the inventory the DBH of all individuals of the 5 plots were measured. After determination of 4 classes of diameter were felled 12 trees and quantified leaves, branches, bark and wood. The selection of the models obtained coefficients of determination higher than 97%. The total biomass was 269 Mg ha-1, of which 89% was wood. The total volume was 546 and 494 m³ ha-1 with and without bark, representing an average annual increase of 54,6 and 49,4 m³ ha-1 year-1. The mean form factor was 0,48. The modeling presented excellent adjustments and certainly serves for future estimates of the stock biomass.