Open Access Short Research Article

Influence of Rice Husk - Mulch on Soil Water Balance Components under Sorghum and Millet Crops in Maiduguri, Semi Arid Northeast Nigeria

P. C. Eze, A. J. Odofin, I. N. Onyekwere, J. J. Musa, P. A. Tsado

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i430150

A 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted at two sites in Maiduguri, Borno State during the 2009 cropping season. The objective was to evaluate the influence of rice husk-mulch on soil water balance components under sorghum and millet crops. The treatments comprised of two test crops (sorghum and millet) and three rates of application (0, 10 and 15 t ha-1) of rice husk mulch, fitted in a split-plot design. The test crops were assigned to the main plot, while the mulch application rates were assigned to the sub-plot. The treatments were replicated three times.  The components of soil water balance determined were annual rainfall, moisture storage within sorghum and millet root zone, drainage below crop root zone and seasonal crop evapotranspiration. Profile moisture content was measured weekly with the aid of a neutron probe installed at a depth of 2.0 m using access tubes. Also, soil (0 – 30 cm depth) moisture content was determined gravimetrically on weekly basis. Rainfall was measured using a manual rain gauge installed at each of the two sites. Findings in this study indicated that, under the prevailing circumstances, annual rainfall was lower than the amount observed over a ten-year period in Maiduguri. Consequently, soil moisture storage, drainage and seasonal crop evapotranspiration generally declined. An average of over 90 % of this low annual rainfall was lost as seasonal crop evapotranspiration. Sorghum plots stored higher moisture within the root zone, had higher drainage and lower seasonal evapotranspiration than millet plots. Moisture storage and drainage increased with increasing mulch application rate, while, seasonal crop evapotranspiration decreased with it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Linear Regression of Incident Precipitation Explains the Throughfall, Stemflow and Interception by the Eucalyptus Canopy under Different Fertilization Management

Huan Pablo de Souza, Dione Richer Momolli, Aline Aparecida Ludvichak, Mauro Valdir Schumacher, Angélica Costa Malheiros

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i430147

The present work aims to quantify the precipitation partition after interaction with the Eucalyptus urophylla canopy under two fertilization treatments. The experimental design was completely causalized with two fertilization treatments. Each plot had a dimension of 30 m x 60 m, and the spacing of the seedlings was 3 m x 2 m. The study was developed in a arenizaded area located in the municipality of Maçambará, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The duration of the study was one year (from April 2017 to March 2018). Biweekly over twelve months the volume of precipitation was quantified. The experiment consists of two fertilization treatments in a Eucalyptus urophylla stand: T1 with smaller and T2 greater fertilization. In each treatment 3 throughfall collectors were installed at one meter of the soil level and three stemflow collectors. In the open area 3 collectors of the incident precipitation were installed 1.5 meters from the ground level. The percentages of the throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception in relation to the incident precipitation were 95.3; 1.3 and 4.3% for treatment 1 and 91.7; 3.2 and 6.2% for treatment 2. The coefficients of determination for throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception were 0.99; 0.96 and 0.85 for treatment 1 and 0.99; 0.97 and 0.89 for treatment 2. The graphical analysis of the regression residues shows independence of the errors. The fertilization management described for treatment 2 results in a greater interception of rainfall due to the greater amount of biomass of the canopy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phosphite-based Products in the In vitro Colletotrichum musae Control

Maria Luísa Mendes Rodrigues, Edson Hiydu Mizobutsi, Paola Junayra Lima Prates, Paula Virgínia Leite Duarte, Regina Cássia Ferreira Ribeiro, Juceliandy Mendes da Silva Pinheiro, Gisele Polete Mizobutsi, Martielle Batista Fernandes, Luana Sabrine Silva

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i430148

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of different phosphite formulations and concentrations on the development of Colletotrichum musae. Sample: to evaluate the inhibition of germination, mycelial growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum musae.

Study Design:  Treatments were conducted in a completely randomized design, with 4 replicates, each replicate consisting of 1 Petri dish.

Place and Duration of Study:  Laboratory of Post-Harvest Pathology, State University of Montes Claros, between March and October 2017.

Methodology: Three different phosphite formulations were used: FCu1 (4% Cu + 20% P2O5), FCu2 (4% Cu + 22% P2O5) at concentrations of 0.5;1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 mL L-1 and FK (42% P2O5 + 27.7% K2O) at concentrations of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 mg.L-1. Products were incorporated into the respective culture media. Culture medium alone and culture medium + imazalil were used as controls. Petri dishes were housed in BOD chamber at 25°C under a 12 hours photoperiod.

Results: Results were submitted to analysis of variance and regression, and means were compared by the Tukey test (P <0.05). Control was compared to the other treatments by the Dunnet's test (P <0.05). Among the tested phosphite formulations, copper and potassium phosphites were found to reduce the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum musae. FCu2 presents a fungicide-like effect from the concentration of 0.5 m.L-1 in the control of conidia production. As for the FCu1, a fungicide-like effect was observed in the control of germination from the concentration of 1.5 mL.L-1.

Conclusion: A significant fungistatic effect was observed between the concentrations of the products in the mycelial growth, sporulation and germination obtaining control of up to 100% of the development of C. musae. Copper phosphites were as effective as fungicide in inhibiting fungal development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes under Allahabad Agro-climatic Conditions in India

Kamidi Vijaykumar, Prashant Kumar Rai, A. Taqui, Venkata Pavan Kumar Nalluri

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i430149

The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the information on the performance of groundnut genotypes for quantitative and qualitative traits. The experimental design consisted of 11 groundnut genotypes (including one check) arranged in Randomized complete Block Design with three replications in the Kharif season 2014 at Field Experimentation Centre of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SHIATS Allahabad, Analysis of variance revealed the presence of considerable variation among the genotypes for all the characters studied. On the basis of mean performance among 11 genotypes ICG 163 was best genotype in growth like primary branches per plant (7.77), days to maturity(107.33), pod yield per plant  (17.89 g), kernel yield (21.12 q ha-1) and oil yield (997 kg  ha-1). ICG 434 and ICG 513 were the best in protein content (23.68%) and oil content (47.73%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Maize (Zea mays L.) for Maize Streak Virus Resistance

P. Arusei, S. Runo, M. Warigia, A. Ngetich, P. Leley

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i430151

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate partial resistance to Maize Streak Virus (MSV) in F2 segregating population derived from a single cross of two inbred lines VLO73311 (resistant) and CLRCW92 (susceptible).

Study Design: The experimental design was an incomplete block design replicated two times.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of plant sciences Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Institute in Biotechnology center laboratory, in June 2014 to December 2015.

Methodology: Resistance was evaluated in replicated field trials under artificial inoculation while selecting using SNP markers. The method of composite interval mapping was employed for QTL detection with a linkage map based on 350 SNP markers.

Results: The final linkage map comprised of 100 individuals and 61 SNP markers distributed in ten linkage maps and covering a distance of 437.282cM. One QTL located in linkage group four was detected with a LOD score of above 2.0 with two SNP markers (PZA00413_20 and PZA03198_3) tightly linked to the QTLs. A significant QTL explaining 14% of the phenotypic variance for early resistance to MSV was detected on chromosome three. 

Conclusion: The SNPs significantly associated with MSV resistance can be used in marker-assisted selection and will accelerate the breeding process for the development of MSV resistant maize genotypes.