Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Breed and Sex on Body Weight and Linear Body Measurements of Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo)

I. M. Chana, M. Kabir, O. Orunmuyi, A. A. Musa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i530152

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of breed and sex on body weight and linear body measurements of 100 Turkeys which included 50 Norfolk and 50 Mammoth breeds each.

Study Design and Duration: The experiment lasted for 20 weeks during which the performance parameters were monitored in 100 Turkeys using completely randomized design.

Methodology: The body weight and linear measurements were taken at an interval of two weeks (i.e. day 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks). Parameters monitored were shank length (cm), back length (cm), chest girth (cm), neck length (cm), thigh length, and wing length and body weight.

Results: Result obtained showed that there where significant differences (P<0.05) in body weight across the breed with Norfolk having 2.70±0.04 and Mammoth 2.55±0.04. The linear measurements studied (body length, neck length, back length, shank length, thigh length, wing length, and chest girth) showed that the Norfolk had superiority over the Mammoth breed.

Conclusion: Result showed remarkable and better growth performance of male turkeys than their female counterparts for all traits and ages. Also, higher values in linear body parameters noted in males.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Physical Quality of the Yellow Passion Fruit under Spacing within Plants and Water Salinity

João Paulo da Silva Macedo, Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante, Jackson Teixeira Lobo, Micaela Benigna Pereira, Aline Dayanna Alves de Lima Marcelino, Francisco Thiago Coelho Bezerra, Marlene Alexandrina Ferreira Bezerra

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i530153

Aims: The aim of this work was to evaluate the yield and the physical quality of the yellow passion fruit accession ‘Guinezinho’ as a function of the within-row plant spacing, with saline irrigation water in consecutive growing seasons.

Study Design: The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with four replicates and 12 plants per parcel, in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, referring to the spacing in the planting lines of 3, 6, 9 and 12 m, and two consecutive growing seasons.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was developed in the municipality of Coronel Ezequiel, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil, within the months of April 2013 and October 2014.

Methodology: The seedings were transplanted in the spacings of 3, 6, 9 and 12 m, and distant 2 m within lines according to the treatments; they were conducted in a vertical shoot position (VSP) training system, and daily irrigated during the arid period with saline water (ECiw = 3.4 dS m-1). The following characteristics were evaluated: fruit yield, fruit mass, longitudinal and transversal fruit diameter, pulp yield, peel mass and peel thickness.

Results: The interaction between spacing and growing season exercised a significant effect on the fruit yield, longitudinal fruit diameter, pulp yield, thickness and mass of the peel (P = .05).  The variables transversal diameter and fruit mass only varied within the growing seasons (P = .05). The plants cultivated in the 3 m spacing were the most productive in the two seasons, with 23.7 and 36.3 t ha-1, in the first and second seasons, respectively.

Conclusion: The highest yield of the yellow passion fruit accession ‘Guinezinho’ was obtained in the smaller plant spacing in the lines. Except for the pulp yield, the yield and physical quality of the fruits were superior in the second growing season. The irrigation with highly saline water, in this type of soil, did not compromise the productive ability of the passion fruit accession ‘Guinezinho’.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity by Molecular Markers ISSR of Algodoeiro (Gossypium mustelinum) in Native Populations of Pernambuco, Brazil

Luiz Sergio Costa Duarte Filho, Edson Ferreira da Silva, Danielson Ramos Ribeiro, Allison Vieira da Silva, Iêda ferreira de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i530154

In order to assure and evaluate the genetic diversity, wild populations of Cotton (Gossypium mustelinum) were collected and evaluated from the coastal plain north of Pernambuco, Brazil. Such populations occur in urban areas in a state of real expansion and with imminent risks of extinction. As a result of these risks and the state of real expansion, aiming at the ex situ conservation of these genetic resources, branches of 66 plants were collected in three populations of G. mustelinum that are located in restinga vegetation in the localities of Ponta de Pedras and Bara of Catuama, both in the municipality of Goiana and in the locality Sossego Beach in the municipality Island of Itamaracá. The collected genotypes were inserted in a new Germplasm Bank (BAG) at the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, after which a sample composed of 24 genotypes contained in the BAG was collected to perform genetic diversity studies using molecular markers of ISSR type. For the molecular analysis, 24 accesses with 4 ISSR primers were analyzed, which produced a total of 36 bands, with a mean of 1,52 alleles per amplified locus. The genetic dissimilarity values, calculated according to the complement of the Jaccard index, ranged from 0.000 to 0.080. The UPGMA method grouped the accesses into three groups. The UFRPE30, UFRPE42 and UFRPE45 accessions were more dissimilar and UFRPE-48, UFRPE-50, UFRPE-52, UFRPE-55, UFRPE60, UFRPE06, UFRPE28, UFRPE29, UFRPE1, UFRPE2, UFRPE17 the least dissimilar. The ISSR markers used in this study demonstrated efficiency in the detection of molecular polymorphisms, revealing genetic variability among the 24 accessions. Considering the results obtained in this work, it is possible to infer that there is considerable genetic variability among the accessions of cotton, demonstrating the importance of the markers in the analysis of variability of species not studied, such as (G. mustelinum).

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecological Variability Prediction Based on Functional Characteristics of an Urban Rainforest

Maria J. H. Leite, Valdemir F. Silva, Maria A. M. Silva, Ana C. B. Lins e Silva, Girlânio H. Silva, Maria M. B. Aguiar, André L. A. Lima, Maria J. N. Rodal

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i530155

The relation among basal area, light and functional characteristics variation is still an unexplored issue, especially in rainforests with different disturbance regimes. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) basal area of arboreal plants and light availability is a good predictor of the functional characteristics, once it is believed that in forest environments with a lower basal area and much light, functional characteristics values linked to the fast light resources utilization are found in leaves, stem and roots; 2) environments where there is greater light availability, the standard deviation values of the leaf characteristics will be greater. The functional characteristics values were not influenced by the geographic distance (spatial autocorrelation) neither by the species phylogeny. The prediction that in the areas with the lower basal area, values of characteristics associated with the rapid use of the light resource were confirmed for five characteristics: dry leaf matter (LMDC), stem (SDMC) and root (RDMC), the density of wood stem (WDC) and root (WDR). Significant investment was not found in structural carbon (greater dry matter values of leaf and wood) in environments with the greater basal area. It is considered that in urban fragments the disturbances are frequent, it is possible to suppose that plants with lower values of LDMC, DWC, DWR, SDMC, and RDMC have also "established" in the two areas with a greater basal area. It is concluded that in fragments in urban rainforest studied, perturbations may change the succession path due to population dynamics, especially in the area with more abundant light availability and lesser basal area (A4<AB). the study suggests that this greater light input in the A4<AB environment, due to the greater perturbations, would lead plants with the strategy of using a slow resource, favoring those with fast use of the resource, and as a result, there would be less variability of the leaf characteristics in A4<AB. The basal area and light intensity are not good predictors of variations of functional characteristics in the urban fragments studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Land Configuration and Crop Residue – Mulch on Millet Performance in Minna, Savanna of Nigeria

P. C. Eze, A. J. Odofin, A. Attahiru, I. N. Onyekwere, B. A. Lawal

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i530156

A 2 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted in cropping season at the old Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Minna, to determine the effect of land configuration and crop residue – mulch on the growth and yield of millet in Minna, Southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. It was a randomized complete block design with two types of land configuration (ridge and flat surface) and three mulch application rates (0, 10 and 15 t/ha), replicated three times. Composite soil samples were collected from the experimental site at 0 – 15 and 15 – 30 cm depths prior to the commencement of this study, for the determination of initial soil physicochemical properties. Crop growth parameters measured were plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of tillers per plant and leaf area index at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks after planting. Yield indices determined were panicle length and stover yield. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance at 0.05 level of significance, while means separation was done using Duncan’s multiple range test. Findings in this study showed that planting on ridge resulted in taller (P ≤ 0.05) millet plants and a higher number of leaves per plant, a higher number of tillers per plant and higher leaf area index than planting on the flat. Plant height, the number of leaves per plant, the number of tillers per plant, leaf area index, panicle length and stover yield increased with increasing mulch application rates.