Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Ornamental Potential of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Gérsia Gonçalves de Melo, Djayran Sobral Costa, Vivian Loges, Simone Santos Lira Silva, Demerson Arruda Sanglard, Péricles de Albuquerque Melo Filho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i630157

Aims: To evaluate the ornamental potential of two safflower genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius L.): ICA 73, ICA 193, grown under protected environment.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agronomy of Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, between March and May 2017.

Methodology: The methodology addressed evaluated the performance of the two genotypes, through three experiments. The first experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, being evaluated: plant height; stem diameter; leaf dentin; spinescent margin of the leaves; number of branches; number of flower buds; spinescent margin of the bracts; flowering, and flower production. The second one was conducted in a randomized complete block design in a factorial scheme, and the following variables were evaluated: plant height; stem diameter; number of branches; number of flower buds; and flower production. Finally, the third experiment used a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme and evaluated the variables: Number of flowers; number of flower buds and post-harvest durability. The analysis of variance was performed using the F test at 5% of probability and, afterwards, the regression or comparison analysis of averages by the Tukey test at 5% of probability.

Results: The ICA 73 access showed plants with high flower production and the ICA 193 exhibited plants with weak or moderate spinescent margin of the leaves and bracts, besides good uniformity of the anthesis of the flowers.

Conclusion: Both accesses showed ornamental potential, demonstrating precocity, beauty and durability of the flowers. The density of one plant was the most favorable for pot plant and cut flower. The semi-open flowers harvest point was the best for maintaining the stem quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotype x Harvest Cycles Interaction in Sugarcane on the South Coast of Pernambuco

Paulo Rocha Machado, Francisco José de Oliveira, Gheysa Coelho Silva, Djalma Euzébio Simões Neto, Ismael Gaião da Costa, Robson da Silva Ramos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i630158

Aims: To quantify the magnitude of the genotype x harvest cycle interaction (GxC) of sugarcane during three harvest cycles and to select superior clones for cultivation on the Coast of the Southern Forest of Pernambuco.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Evaluated during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 harvest years in the agricultural area of the Cucaú Plant, located in the Municipality of Rio Formoso (8°39' 49" S and 35º09'31" W, altitude of 5 m), Microregion of the Southern Forest of Pernambuco.

Methodology: 11 genotypes Republic of Brazil of the RB 2004 series and three RB cultivars were evaluated. Each plot was represented by five grooves of 8.0 m in length, spaced in 1.0 m, totaling 40 m². The crops were harvested 15 months after planting (MAP) for the first crop cycle and 12 MAP during the two subsequent cycles were evaluated tons of sugarcane per hectare (TCH), tons of pol per hectare (TPH) and total recoverable sugar (ATR). The variance analyses, the Scott and Knott clustering test, the estimative of the simple and complex parts of the G x C interaction and the Pearson correlation coefficient were processed in the Genes program.

Results: The genotypes showed a significant reduction of TCH from the first to the second cycle and that only the genotype UFRPE11 showed a significant decrease for the third. The genotypes UFRPE10, UFRPE6, UFRPE11, UFRPE7, UFRPE2, UFRPE9 and UFRPE1 exceeded all commercial varieties in TPH. It was observed for the variable ATR that there were no significant differences between the genotypes in the third cycle. The simple fraction of the interaction G x C were predominant between cycles C1 and C2 for TCH (67.91%) and TPH (69.35%), while for ATR (56.42%) the complex fraction was predominant. For the pair C2 x C3, the simple fraction of the interaction G x C predominated only in the TCH (62.85%) and TPH (62.41%) variables, but was not significant for the variable ATR. It is worth mentioning that the C1 x C3 cycle pair presented predominantly complex type interactions for all variables TCH (50.42%), TPH (52.20%) and ATR (59.66%).

Conclusion: The simple fraction of the genotype x harvest cycles (G x C) interaction provides genetic gain for yield of sugarcane and sugar in selection in subsequent pairs of harvest cycles, year by year. The complex fraction of G x C interaction reduces the predictability of genetic gain, making it difficult to select new cultivars. Local selection favors expressive genetic gain in a few selection cycles. However, it does not favor the selection of genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability, requiring tests in several environments. The UFRPE06 and UFRPE10 clones can be selected to continue the selection cycles for the southern coastal conditions of the Mata de Pernambuco.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Pre-Harvest Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) Treatments on Fruit Quality Attributes of Braeburn Apples during Cold Storage

Burhan Ozturk, Orhan Karakaya, Yakup Ozkan, Kenan Yildiz, Medeni Karakaya, Saadet Koc Guler

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i630159

In this study, effects of pre-harvest naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) treatments on weight loss, color, flesh firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity and starch index of Braeburn apples (Malus x domestica Borkh) were determined at harvest and at 45 days post-harvest intervals throughout cold storage at 0±0.5°C and 90±5% RH.  During cold storage, the lowest weight loss was obtained from NAA-treated fruits. L* and hue angle values of both control and NAA-treated fruits decreased in all analysis periods. While chroma value increased for NAA-treated fruits during cold storage, it firstly increased, and then decreased. The flesh firmness of NAA-treated fruits was higher than control fruits at harvest, whereas it was lower in the last two analysis periods. NAA-treated fruits had lower SSC values than the control fruits. The starch degradation of NAA-treated fruits was faster than the control fruits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Haematological Changes in African Catfish Clarias gariepinus Juveniles Exposed to Mercuric Chloride

M. S. Isiyaku, P. A. Annune, L. O. Tiamiyu

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i630160

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Mercuric chloride on the growth and haematological parameters in the freshwater catfish, Clarias gariepinus. A total of 30 fishes were used for each concentration as well as in the control. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 mg/l of HgCl2 for 56 days. The treatment with mercuric chloride was found to inflict a drastic reduction in the total count of RBC’s. The reduction was time dependent; as concentration of mercuric chloride increased, the RBC levels declined. Exposed fishes showed a significant decrease in WBC count when compared to the control. The morphological indices MCV, MCH and MCHC fluctuate as the test concentration increased. The chronic exposure to sublethal concentration of mercuric chloride to the studied fish showed a significant decrease in final body weight in comparison to control group. Also, Growth parameters such as specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion efficiency (FCE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), food conversion rate (FCR) decreased with increased concentration of mercuric chloride. The mercuric chloride caused a significant decrease in the survival rate (P < 0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Fertility Status in Relation to Farmers’ Practices Under Maize Based Systems in Western Region of Kenya: Yield Gap Analysis

E. M. Muya, J. M. Miriti, M. Radiro, A. Esilaba, A. L. Chek, D. Nyongesa, A. Thuranira, C. Githunguri

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v33i630161

A study was carried out in Kenya Cereal Enhancement Project site in Western region of Kenya to examine the soil fertility status in relation to the current blanket fertilizer recommendations and farmers’ practices across the four wards, namely: Motosiet, Keiyo, Cherangani and Kwanza. The baseline fertility status in different soil mapping units was assessed in terms of soil productivity index with a view of analyzing the levels of nutrients and yield gaps. Using the standard soil survey procedures, six soil mapping units were identified as UUr1, UUr2, UUr3, RUd, RUrb, and BU1.. The results showed that the highest productivity index was in unit BU1, followed by UUr1, UUr2, UUr3, and RUrb with values of 40.5, 29.4, 25.0, 16.0 and 8.9% respectively.  Keiyo Ward had the highest level of nitrogen, being 125.82, followed by Motosiet, Cherangani and Kwanza with values of 99.92, 97.12, and 81.12 kg/ha respectively. Phosphorous level was highest in Kwanza (136.41 kg/ha), followed by Cherangani (106.82 kg/ha) and Keiyo Ward (76.08 kg/ha). The lowest level was recorded in Motosiet with the value of 72.56 kg/ha. Potassium was found to be adequate in all the four Wards with values ranging between 347.67 and 410.34 kg/ha. The maximum maize production recorded in the project sites was 9,000 kg/ha, with a yield gap of 1,000 kg/ha. This was achieved through application of 100 and 50 kg/ha of DAP and CAN respectively. This was followed by 6,750 kg/ha obtained through application of 50 kg/ha of DAP and CAN. The yields from the rest of the sites ranged between 1,800 and 4,500 kg/ha with yield gaps varying from 3,250 to 8,650 kg/ha. The lowest yields were obtained in Keiyo, followed by Kwanza Ward despite the relatively high macro- nutrient levels in the soils of the two Wards. This was attributed to soil-related constraints caused by the increased soil structural degradation and loss of soil tilth. Therefore, it is recommended that the envisaged climate smart technologies be geared towards enhancement of nutrient and water use efficiency through improved soil structure and tilth.