Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Wood Ash Application on Yield Advantage Indices of Maize and Lima Beans in an Intercrop

R. O. Ajala, M. A. Awodun, A. J. Adeyemo, B. F. Dada

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i130163

Alternate planting combinations of maize (Zea mays L.) with lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) using wood ash as soil amendments were compared with the sole planting of each crop during the late 2014  and early 2015 planting seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The experiment in each season adopted three patterns of intercropping using ash as a soil amendment and laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The experiment comprised 10 treatments: Sole planting of maize amended, sole planting of maize unamended, sole planting of lima beans amended and sole planting of lima beans unamended. Others were; 75:25 maize-lima beans amended, 75:25 maize-lima beans unamended, 50:50 maize-lima beans amended, 50:50 maize-lima beans unamended, 25:75 maize-lima beans amended and 25:75 maize-lima beans unamended. Wood ash was applied two weeks after planting at the rate of 2.4 kg (4 tons per hectare) to each plot. The combined yield advantage in terms of land equivalent ratio (LER) indices was greatest (1.95) in the case of 3 rows of maize and 1row of lima beans intercropping arrangements. Competition indices (CR) for all crops in all intercropping arrangements were more than 0.1 indicating that both crops were equally competitive.  However, crop aggressivity (A) showed that maize was more dominant than lima beans due to plant population. Costs and returns analysis revealed that maize and lima beans intercropping at all proportions were more profitable than their corresponding monocrops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Hindering Farmers’ Participation and Look for Agricultural Development and Food Security

Debella Deressa Bayissa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i130164

Agriculture is one of the key drivers of Ethiopia’s long-term development and food security. It supports 85% of the total population, constitutes 43% of GDP and 80% of export value. For the country to reach middle-income prestige by 2025 and make significant inroads against food insecurity, strategic choices and concerted and strategic investments in agricultural sector are vigorous. The government of Ethiopia has put maximum efforts to increase agricultural output. However, increments in agricultural production and productivity, the expected benefits, have not been achieved yet. Low agricultural production and productivity is the major cause of food insecurity in the country emanating from lack of suitable technologies for beneficiaries, low adoption of agricultural innovations, and lack of active participation of farmers in agricultural research. Therefore, this study examines critical factors that hinder farmers’ participation in agricultural research in Ethiopia. A total sample size of 39 respondents comprising 16 farmers, 14 researchers and 9 development agents were interviewed purposively based on snowball sampling technique. Qualitative research design was used in this research. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and observations and analysed descriptively. The empirical results reveal that lack of sufficient time, bad experiences in the past, perception of farmers’ for researchers, farmer’s attitude for research, the type of research, lack of stakeholder’s willingness to learn from one another, loose integration of indigenous and scientific knowledge and insignificant change of new technologies to material wealth critically hindered farmer’s participation in agricultural research to bring innovation in agriculture. Innovation in agriculture comes from the interaction of the different actors that are working in agriculture since each actor brings their own knowledge and results in social learning. Insignificant innovation in agricultural research results in food insecurity in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Abilities of Tectona grandis and Celtis zenkeri (Hardwood) Sawdust as Substrates of Pleurotus Species and Their Indigenous Fungi

I. S. Olatunji, A. A. Sobowale, C. O. Adenipekun

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i130165

Mushroom cultivation has continued to receive growing attention because of its nutritional and medicinal values. However, this study examined the effect of hardwood sawdust on the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius were investigated. Relationship between fungal incidence of the substrates (sawdust) and that of the mushroom were examined. Both Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius were inoculated on fermented and unfermented sawdust of Tectonal grandis and Celtis zenkeri. The fruiting bodies of the mushrooms were harvested and the growth parameters and biological efficiency was recorded. The isolated resident fungi were identified after obtaining pure cultures. The collected data were subjected to analysis (ANOVA) using Generalized Linear Model Procedure (GLM) of Statistical Analysis software (SAS). Means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at p ≤ 0.05.

Some of the growth parameters of P. ostreatus were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better than that of P. pulmonarius. Tectona grandis and Celtis zenkeri sawdust had significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on different growth parameters of the two mushrooms. Fermentation or non-fermentation of the substrates (sawdust) had no significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on growth parameters of the mushrooms. Growth parameters of the two mushrooms were significantly better in 0% additive (p ≤ 0.05) than in the other additive concentrations. Five fungi were identified as indigenous fungi of the unfermented sawdust which did not significantly differ from those of the fermented sawdust and mushrooms. Nutritional composition of the mushrooms that grew on fermented and unfermented sawdust were good and comparable. The mushrooms were rich in protein, fibre, ash, moisture, fat and carbohydrate. Cultivation of mushrooms on hardwood sawdust is thus an effective means of managing such waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma and Bacillus Species on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp vasinfectum

Otília Ricardo de Farias, Luciana Cordeiro de Nascimento, José Manoel Ferreira de Lima Cruz, Hiago Antônio Oliveira Silva, Mônica Danielly de Mello Oliveira, Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno, Nair Helena Castro Arriel

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i130166

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, is one of the major diseases of cotton. Preventive methods to manage this disease should be adopted what includes the seed treatment with biocontrol agents as a good alternative. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of biological products based on Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus subtilis in the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) applied in seeds and seedlings of cotton. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitopatologia of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, of the Universidade Federal de Paraíba (CCA-UFPB), located in the city of Areia, Paraíba - Brazil. The disease transmission of the seeds to the seedlings was evaluated. After the transmission test, cotton seeds of the variety Mocó (Gossypium hirsutum var. Marie-gallante (Watt) Hutch.), BRS 286 and Topázio cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were submitted to the treatments T1 - Control, T2 - Trichodel® (0,5 mL); T3-Trichodel® (1.0 mL); T4-Trichodel® (1.5 mL); T5-Trichodel® (2.0 mL); T6-Bactel® (2.0 mL); T7-Bactel® (2.5 mL); T8-Bactel® (3.0 mL); T9-Bactel® (3.5 mL) diluted in 100 mL SDW; T10 - Fungicide Captana (240 g / 100 kg of seeds) and inoculated with Fov. The pathogen incidence of the seeds was evaluated seven days after the inoculation (DAI). To evaluate the biological control of Fov in the seedlings, the treated seeds were submitted to the following inoculation methods: 1 - inoculation of the substrate with a pathogen conidia suspension; 2 - immersion of the seeds in the conidia suspension and 3 - direct contact of the seeds with the pathogen mycelium. Twenty-one DAI the disease severity and percentage of seedlings with vascular darkening were evaluated. It was observed a transmission rate of 64.0 to 89.0% of the seeds to the seedlings. Trichodel® reduced the incidence and severity of Fov in the cotton seedlings and was the most efficient product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antagonic Agents and Hydrothermal Treatment in the Control of Anthracnosis in Banana cv. 'Pacovan'

José Gomes Filho, Gerlan do Nascimento Rodrigues, Erisson Marques da Silva, Samuel Silva de Lima, Alessandra da Silva Araújo, Lucas Alceu Rodrigues de Lima, Valdeir Nunes Carvalho

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i130167

The objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal and biological treatment efficiency of anthracnose (Colletotrichum musae) in banana cv. 'Pacovan'. Three experiments were set up in the laboratory, the first "in vitro" to select the isolate of Trichoderma spp. which had greater mycelial inhibition on plaque, the 2nd "in vivo" was biological control using 2 races of Trichoderma spp. and the 3rd in vivo varying temperatures and exposure times of banana fruits contaminated with Colletotrichum musae. Positive treatments (using fungicide) and negative treatments were done with the application of distilled water only for experiment 2 and 3. The antagonistic biological control agents T2 and T9 were efficient in inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum musae "in vitro", when analyzed "in vivo" did not have efficiency in the inhibition of the growth of the pathogen. Thermotherapy is a promising technique for the treatment of postharvest rot in banana fruits of 'Pacovan' cultivar, with the best efficiencies observed at 47ºC for 3 and 9 min, and 51º for 3 and 9 min.