Open Access Original Research Article

Pruning Intensity and Lopping System in Fig Plants in the Brazilian Semiarid Region

Francisco Sidene Oliveira Silva, Vander Mendonça, Anderson Araujo Alves, Wagner Cesar de Farias, Elizangela Cabral dos Santos, Eduardo Castro Pereira, Elânia Guadalupe Paiva Martins

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i230168

Aims: Fig plants produce fruits in branches of the year, which grow after emission of buds from the leaf armpits. And the lopping system is one of the most common practices among the green fig farmers to increase production. Thus, the present work aimed to improve the physical, chemical and productive characteristics of fig trees in the semiarid region of Brazil.

Study Design: A complete randomized block design was used in a 3x2 factorial scheme (three pruning intensities: 5, 10 and 15 cm in length; and two lopping systems: with and without lopping), constituting six treatments with four replicates. Each experimental plot consisted of five plants, but only the three central plants were used.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in the didactic orchard of the Federal Rural University of Semiarid (UFERSA), Mossoró, RN.

Methodology: The treatments were: 5 cm pruning without lopping; 5 cm pruning with lopping; 10 cm pruning without lopping; 10 cm pruning with lopping; 15 cm pruning without lopping; 15 cm pruning with lopping. The following variables were analyzed: fruit weight (g), fruit length (cm), fruit diameter (cm), pulp firmness (N), soluble solids content (ºBrix), titratable acidity (%), vitamin C content (mg ascorbic acid 100 g-1 pulp), fruit yield (number of fruits plant-1 and kg plant-1). Data were submitted to analysis of variance by the F test at 5% probability and means were grouped using the Tukey test at 5% probability. The analysis was performed using R software version 3.5.2.

Conclusion: Pruning intensity 10 cm in length and the use of lopping system influenced the physical, chemical and productive characteristics of fig plants in the Brazilian semiarid region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Maturity and Determination of the Harvest Time of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.

José Manoel Ferreira de Lima Cruz, Edna Ursulino Alves, Otília Ricardo de Farias, Paulo Costa Araújo, Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i230169

The maturation process of seeds is genetically controlled and involves an organized sequence of physiological changes from the fertilization until the complete independence from the plant. It is recommended that the harvest occurs in the ideal moment, this way the seeds can express their full potential, with maximum dry matter accumulation, reaching high potential of germination and vigor. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological maturity point of cowpea bean seeds (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), cv. Corujinha, aiming to indicate the best harvesting period, in order to guarantee greater germination potential and seed vigor. Cowpea pods were harvest from the third until the twenty-first day after anthesis, with intervals of three days between the harvests. After each harvest, the following evaluations were carried out: pod and seed color, number of seeds per pod, pod and seed biometry, pod and seed moisture, water content, germination, germination speed index, length and dry matter of the shoots and roots. At 15 DAA, the seeds and pods presented light green coloration, with maximum values of length, width, thickness, dry matter, germination percentage and germination speed index, at a vigor level. There was a gradual reduction of water content in the seeds and number of seeds up to 21 DAA. The highest values for shoot and root length were observed at 18 DAA, when seeds and pods showed light brown color and for shoot and root dry matter at 21 DAA, with brown color. The physiological maturity of cowpea seeds was rapid and occurred between 15 and 21 DAA. The harvest is recommended at 15 days after anthesis, when the seeds present high physiological quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association among Agro-morphological Traits by Correlations and Path in Selection of Maize Genotypes

Richardson Sales Rocha, Maxwel Rodrigues Nascimento, José Tiago Barroso Chagas, Rafael Nunes de Almeida, Paulo Ricardo dos Santos, Camila Queiroz da Silva Sanfim de Sant’Anna, Derivaldo Pureza da Cruz, Kleyton Danilo da Silva Costa, Geraldo de Amaral Gravina, Rogério Figueiredo Daher

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i230170

In the State of Espírito Santo (Brazil), family farmers have grown a number of maize varieties for decades, consisting of open-pollinated populations with valuable importance for the livelihood of smallholder farmers. The study aimed to analyze the cause and effect of associations between agro-morphological traits for increasing yields in maize populations cultivated. A total of 16 maize accessions of in vivo conservation works in eight different locations were evaluated, in a randomized complete block design with three replicates, totaling 48 experimental units. Genetic parameters, genotypic, phenotypic, and environmental correlation were estimated, and a path analysis was conducted. In general, accessions presented enough genetic variability, showing significant differences for all traits analyzed statistically (P≤0.05). The first cob insertion height with plant height and final plant stand variables presented heritability (h2) higher than 80%, suggesting that superior genotypes could be determined. Highest estimates of phenotypic correlations (rp) were found between the first cob insertion height with plant height and total number of cobs with number of cobs per plant (0.85). For estimates of genotypic correlations (rg), the highest were between (i) the first cob insertion height and plant height; (ii) number of grains per row and number of cobs per plant; (iii) total number of cobs and final plant stand. Maize final plant stand and one thousand seed weight were observed to be traits that could be determinant in grain yield increase.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield Attributing Characters and Biomass Accumulation of Safed Musli as Influenced by FYM and Fly Ash Application under Inceptisol

Payal B. Hadke, S. G. Wankhade, S. M. Bhoyar, S. S. Wanjari, R. K. Kolhe

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i230171

The field experiment was conducted during 2013-2014 at Nagarjuna Medicinal Plants Garden, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M.S.) There were three levels of FYM and four levels of fly ash with three replications in FRBD on Inceptisol with a view to study the effect of FYM and fly ash application on yield, quality and nutrient uptake of safed musli. As the physiological maturity of the crop begins at 85-90 days after sowing (DAS) the growth observations e.g. number of leaves, leaf area were recorded at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing. The number of leaves were successively increased with each growth stage upto 60 days Significantly highest leaf area was recorded with the application of 20 t FYM ha-1 (M2) .Significantly highest leaf area (29.56 cm2) was recorded at 60 DAP with the application of 15 t fly ash ha- 1 which was at par with 10 t fly ash ha-1 (F2) and 5 t fly ash ha-1 (F1). Significantly highest dry matter accumulation was recorded with the application of 20 t FYM ha-1, however, it was at par with 10 t FYM ha-1. The highest biomass accumulation was observed with 15 t fly ash ha-1 (F3) which was at par with 10 t fly ash ha-1 (F2) and 5 t fly ash ha-1 (F1). The thermal industrial waste like fly ash showed a promising option for nutrient management in medicinal crop plant like safed musli which can substitute to some extent costly chemical fertilizer and improve the qualitative value of safed musli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrogen Fertilization of Marandu Palisadegrass under Different Periods of Deferment

Renato Di Loreto, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Luciano da Silva Cabral, Arthur Behling Neto, Luis Miguel Mendes Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral, Livia Vieira de Barros, Henrique Guimarães de Favare, Dayenne Mariane Herrera, Larah Drielly Santos Herrera

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i230172

The goal with this study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics, nutritive value and the forage dry matter (DM) accumulation of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in different stages of deferment under nitrogen fertilization levels. The experimental design was a randomized block in split-plot, with three replicates. Plot treatments corresponded to two levels of fertilization (with and without). Split-plot treatments corresponded to four deferment periods (March, April, May, June). Plant height and forage DM accumulation increased (P = .05), while the leaves percentage decreased according to the deferral months. Regarding the fertilization, the percentage of leaves was lower (P= .05) with nitrogen use. The DM content was higher (P = .05) in pastures deferred for a longer time. The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content increased due to fertilization and greater deferral period. The crude protein (CP) level decreased as the deferral periods. Nitrogen fertilization proved to be viable for the production of good quality forage. The reduction in the deferment period produces forage with better morphological composition and nutritive value.