Open Access Original Research Article

Biomass and Stock of Nutrients in Different Genotypes of Eucalypts in Southern Brazil

Kristiana Fiorentin dos Santos, Mauro Valdir Schumacher, Aline Aparecida Ludvichak, Elias Frank de Araújo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i430178

The objective of this study was to estimate the biomass, nutrient stocks, and nutrient utilization efficiency of six genotypes of eucalypts at 49-months-old. The experiment was conducted in Eldorado do Sul (Climate of the region is characterized as subtropical humid - Cfa; and the soil in the experimental area is the Red-Yellow Argissol), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The selected trees were fractionated into leaves, branches, stembark and stemwood. The amount of total biomass ranged from 68.40 to 117.52 Mg ha-1, with the highest production being hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus, and E. dunnii the lowest. The canopy (leaves and branches) accumulated between 17% and 52% of the total macronutrients in E. benthamii (Provenance 1) and hybrid E. urophylla x E. globulus and from 24% to 34% of the total micronutrients in E. dunnii and hybrid E. urophylla x E. globulus. While the stem (wood and bark) accumulated between 48 to 83% and 66 to 76% of the total macro and micronutrients, respectively. For the stemwood, it was observed that E. benthamii (Provenance 2) presented the highest values of nutritional efficiency for N, Ca, Cu and Fe, and hybrid E. urophylla x E. globulus for P, Mg and B. The different eucalypts genotypes, under the same edaphoclimatic conditions, presented different biomass production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Investigation of Problems of Drift in Aerial Spraying

Robert S. Rowiński

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i430179

Agricultural and forestry requirements for agricultural aviation are related to spread of fertilizers, crop protection and protection against pests in forestry. Main topic presented on this paper is the result of experimental investigations in the field of “the drift in aerial spraying”.

The results of those investigations are formulas for estimating protection zones depending on the type of used pesticides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Food Attractants Used in the Fruit Fly Monitoring (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Commercial Orchard of Psidium guajava

Júlio César G. Alves, Carlos Henrique de Brito, Robério de Oliveira, Clarice D. A. Corsato, Jakellyne F. da Silva, Vinícius de O. Barbosa, Jacinto de L. Batista

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i430180

Fruit flies are considered an important fruit pest for world fruit production because they cause significant losses to the production and limit fruit free transport due to quarantine restrictions imposed by importing countries. Fruit flies population dynamics knowledge of a particular region is an important factor in the management of this pest. Traps are devices created to attract and capture flies by sexual attraction or food attraction, both put inside the trap. It reduces fruit flies population in the orchard, decreasing the pressure and chances of an infestation. This research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of food baits in the fruit flies capture on guava plant culture, in order to establish an adequate program for this pest in the municipality of Nova Floresta – PB. Monitoring of the adult fruit-fly was performed with aid of plastic traps of the type PET bottle 330 mL of Bio Anastrepha® 5.0%, 440 mL of sugarcane molasses diluted to 10.0% and 520 mL of 30.0% fruit juice (guava). The traps were installed in the central part of the trees, approximately 1.50 m above ground. Every 15 days adult fruit flies were caught, the occasion that food baits were replaced. From these data were evaluated: efficiency of food baits, MAD index (flies/trap/day) and food baits cost-benefit analysis. The best food attractant at the lowest cost was Bio Anastrepha® at 5.0%, with a catch margin of 63.83%, followed by fruit juice at 30.0% and sugarcane molasses at 10.0%, with 34.04% and 2.13%, respectively.    

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Tannery Sludge and Urban Compost as a Substrate for Sweet Pepper Seedlings

Sávio da Silva Berilli, Fernanda Vargas Valadares, Ramon Amaro de Sales, Alessandra de Fatima Ulisses, Rodrigo Martins Pereira, Geraldo José Alves Dutra, Matheus Wandermurem da Silva, Ana Paula Cândido Gabriel Berilli, Rodrigo Amaro de Salles, Rafael Nunes de Almeida

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i430181

There are many commercial substrates available in the market of vegetables nowadays. However, a growing pressure turned for sustainability in farming, promotes a line of utilization of waste with agricultural potential, such as the use of urban waste compost and tannery sludge, which, when available, can be used as sources of compost and alternative organic matter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of tannery sludge associated with the urban waste compost in the substrate composition of sweet pepper seedlings, especially regarding emergence, development, and quality of seedlings. The experimental design was a randomized block design with six replications and eight treatments. The treatments consisted of mixtures of the residue of dehydrated tannery sludge and urban waste compost, varying in the proportions of 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90% and 100% of each, as well as the use of a commercial substrate as a conventional treatment for the comparisons. Graphs were performed through linear regression analysis for the treatment of statistical data. The percentage of emergence, development, and quality of seedlings were evaluated 54 days after planting. The alternative substrates showed high potential in the production of seedlings, in which all the combinations used in the study were superior to the conventional treatment, except the germination, which did not present difference. The range for the use of tannery sludge in the preparation of substrates for sweet pepper seedlings is between 32.7 and 48.2% in a mixture with urban waste compost. The plants presented better quality with the use of 46.0% of tannery sludge and 54.0% of urban compost in the preparation of the substrate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Efficiency of Bone Meal under Acidification in Brachiaria ruziziensis Dry Matter Production in Western Amazon

João Batista Dias Damaceno, Ana Cecília Nina Lobato, Romildo Torres da Gama, Cleidson Alves da Silva, Jhonny Kelvin Dias Martins, Danielle Monteiro de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci, Newton Paulo de Souza Falcão, Elvino Ferreira

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i430182

Aims: The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic efficiency of the bone meal under acidification in the production of dry matter of Brachiaria ruziziensis in relation to a soluble source.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and three replications. Treatments included a control, single superphosphate (SS), bone meal (BM), BM treated with 10% oxalic acid, BM treated with 10% acetic acid, and BM treated with 1% to 0.5% hydrochloric acid.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out from October 2014 to February 2015, at the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Rondônia (UNIR), located 15 km from the city of Rolim de Moura, Rondônia, Brazil.

Methodology: The bone meal used in the experiment was produced manually, where bovine bones were collected and burned for carbon removal and particle reduction. The oxalic acid, acetic acid and hydrochloric acid were used to increase the solubility of the bone meal for application to the soil for growth of B. ruziziensis. Parameters evaluated were the agronomic efficiency index (AEI), phosphorus conversion efficiency (PCE), shoot dry matter (SDM), and root dry matter (RDM).

Results: AEI obtained for acid treatments was above 60% and PCE satisfactory when compared to the soluble source, except for 0.5% hydrochloric acid and significantly above the BM without acid treatments. There was higher production of SDM and RDM with the soluble source (SS), however the acid treatments promoted dry matter production above the BM without acid treatments.

Conclusions: The application of acids in bone meal promoted satisfactory agronomic efficiency gains for Brachiaria ruziziensis.