Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fertilizer on Palisadegrass Seeds Pathogens

Anne Caroline Dallabrida Avelino, Dayana Aparecida de Faria, Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro, Giovani Oliveira de Arieira, Arthur Behling Neto, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Elisangela Clarete Camili, Leimi Kobayasti, Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i630188

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the contact of Brachiaria seeds with the fertilizer 05-25-15 on the sanitary quality of the seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a (2x5) factorial design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of five contact times (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours) of the fertilizer with seeds of ruziziensis grass and marandu grass. After the contact times of the Brachiaria seeds with the fertilizer, the seeds from each species were separated and the following analyses were performed: water content, germination, seed health ("Blotter Test"), and accelerated aging, with later germination test and sanitary analysis of seeds. Data were analysed for variance and regression analysis at the significance level of 5% and descriptive analysis was used for the results of the sanitary analysis. The contact time reduces the incidence of pathogens in the seeds of ruziziensis grass and marandu grass treated with the fertilizer due to the salinity and acid pH of the fertilizer. The fungi related to the reduction in germination were Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. The disinfestation process increased the incidence of Fusarium sp., under high internal infestation of this fungus in palisadegrass seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biomass Production and Nutritional Efficiency in Eucalyptus Genotypes in the Pampa Biome

Claudiney do Couto Guimarães, Mauro Valdir Schumacher, Dione Richer Momolli, Huan Pablo de Souza, Aline Aparecida Ludvichak, Angélica Costa Malheiros

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i630189

The objective of this work was to determine biomass production and nutritional efficiency in three eucalyptus genotypes in the Pampa Biome. For determination of biomass and nutritional characterization, nine medium trees per genotype were sampled, separated in the components leaf, branch, bark, wood and root. The nutritional efficiency of the biomass components was determined using the biological utilization coefficient (BUC). The highest biomass production and mean annual increment were observed in the Eucalyptus urograndis hybrid with 158 Mg ha-1 and 47.2 m³ ha-1, followed by Eucalyptus grandis with 137 Mg ha-1 and 39.7 m³ ha-1 and Eucalyptus dunnii with 122 Mg ha-1 and 23.2 m³ ha-1. For wood, the best nutritional efficiency was provided by Eucalytpus urograndis for P, Ca, and Mn, followed by Eucalytpus grandis for N and Mg, and Eucalytpus dunnii for K.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reduction of the Forage Seeds Physiological Quality by the Contact with Fertilizer in the Crop-Livestock Integration

Anne Caroline Dallabrida Avelino, Dayana Aparecida de Faria, Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Elisangela Clarete Camili, Alyce Raiana Monteiro dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i630190

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Brachiaria seed contact time with 05-25-15 fertilizer (N-P2O5-K2O) on the seed’s physiological quality. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with four replicates. Treatments were arranged in a 5x4 factorial, being: five seeds contact times with fertilizer (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours); four forages: Marandu palisadegrass, Piatã palisadegrass, Xaraés palisadegrass and Ruziziensis grass. The performed tests were: water content, germination (first count and germination percentage), tetrazolium (viability), electrical conductivity, accelerated aging, sand emergency and emergence speed index. Contact time of 05-25-15 fertilizer with Brachiaria seeds reduces linearly: Germination, emergence and emergence speed index of Brachiaria seeds; Piatã and Xaraés palisadegrass seeds viability; vigor (electrical conductivity), except in Ruziziensis grass seeds; and seeds germination of Piatã palisadegrass submitted to accelerated aging test (vigor). Piatã palisadegrass is the least recommended, among the analyzed grasses, for intercropping in simultaneous sowing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Productivity and Nutrient Supply in ‘Gigante’ Cactus Pear with Regulated Deficit Irrigation Using Wastewater

José Alberto Alves de Souza, Delfran Batista dos Santos, Thaís Carvalho Camelo, Giliarde Alves dos Reis, Carlos Elízio Cotrim

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i630191

Aims: To evaluate productivity and nutrient supply in 'Gigante' cactus pear with regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) using wastewater, compared to RDI using common water and fertilization with bovine manure.

Study Design: Treatments: no fertilization and no irrigation (T1); no fertilization and RDI with wastewater (0.6 L plant-1 week-1) (T2); no fertilization and RDI with wastewater (1.2 L plant-1 week-1, applied once a week) (T3); no fertilization and RDI with wastewater (1.2 L plant-1 week-1, divided into two applications per week) (T4); with organic fertilization (60 Mg ha-1 of bovine manure) and RDI with common water (1.2 L plant-1 week-1) (T5); and with organic fertilization (60 Mg ha-1 of bovine manure) and no irrigation (T6). The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design, with five replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out between October 2015 and August 2017 at Instituto Federal Baiano, Guanambi Campus, Brazil.

Methodology: Productivity of green and dry matter, amount of macro and micronutrients applied in the soil by wastewater and by organic fertilizer, macro and micronutrient contents present in the cladodes tissues, and macro and micronutrient contents in the soil were evaluated. The wastewater used was collected in the stabilization pond of the campus.

Results: Green matter yield was significantly higher in irrigated treatments. Regarding dry matter, its value was higher in T5 and it did not differ statistically in the others.

Conclusions: RDI, using common water, provided a yield of green matter 2.47 times higher than in non-irrigated treatment with the same fertilization; in the absence of organic fertilization, RDI, using wastewater, provided a yield of green matter 1.96 times higher than in non-irrigated treatment; in the absence of irrigation, organic fertilization does not provided a yield higher than in non-fertilized treatment; and the contribution of N, K, Cu, Zn and Mn only by the wastewater is not enough to sustain the crop's productivity in the long term.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Optimal Day for Nitrogen Fertilization on Piatã palisadegrass and Quênia guineagrass after Defoliation

Dayana Aparecida de Faria, Anne Caroline Dallabrida Avelino, Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Lívia Vieira de Barros, Carla Heloisa Avelino Cabral, Victor Gustavo Valiati Dantas, Simone Francieli Guarnieri, Arthur Behling Neto, Lucas Matheus Barros Assis

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v34i630192

Considering that nitrogen is the main macronutrient limiting pasture productivity, the aim of this study was to investigate the most appropriate day for nitrogen fertilization of the grasses Brachiaria brizantha BRS Piatã and Panicum maximum BRS Quênia. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in the city of Rondonópolis, located in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, using a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of five nitrogen fertilization periods: 0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 days after defoliation. The dry mass of the leaf blade (DMLB), dry mass of stem + sheath (DMSS), dry mass of residue (DMRES) and root dry mass (RDM) were evaluated. The non-structural carbohydrate of the grass roots was also quantified. The later nitrogen fertilization after defoliation reduced DMLB (P< .01) and DMSS (P< .01) of the BRS Piatã palisadegrass, and DMRES of both grasses (P< .01). Higher levels of water soluble carbohydrates were observed when nitrogen fertilization was performed on grass cutting (day 0). Nitrogen fertilization of the BRS Piatã palisadegrass close the time of defoliation is recommended. For Quênia guineagrass, nitrogen can be applied between the cutting day and the eighth day after defoliation. For the root system, there is a higher content of water soluble carbohydrates in the BRS Piatã palisadegrass and greater accumulation of starch in the BRS Quênia guineagrass.