Open Access Original Research Article

Maximum Contact Time of “Piatã Grass” Brachiaria brizantha (Poaceae) Seeds with Fertilizer for Germination

Anne Caroline Dallabrida Avelino, Dayana Aparecida de Faria, Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Elisangela Clarete Camili, Kyron Cabral Sales, David Bungestab

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i130193

Data regarding the mixing of palisade grass seeds with fertilizers are scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maximum contact time without significant damage on physiological quality of Piatã grass seeds when mixed with 05:25:15 NPK fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of six contact times of the seeds with the fertilizer: 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The variables following variables were evaluated: water content, germination percentage, first germination count, seed viability, eletrical conductivity, accelerated aging, emergence percentage and emergence speed index. Except for the water content, there was an effect of the fertilizer contact times with the seeds over all variables. There was a decreasing linear effect of the contact time of the seeds with the fertilizer for all variables, except for electrical conductivity. The average water content of 10.09% was observed. After 120 hours of the fertilizer/seeds mixture, a reduction of 36.4% was observed in germination, of 36.7% in the first germination count, of 25.0% in seed viability, and of 65.0% in the germination of seeds subjected to the accelerated aging. There was an increase of 170.0% in the electrical conductivity of the Piatã grass seeds. The minimum standard of 60% germination, viability or emergence, required for the commercialization of forage seeds, should be maintained to ensure the ideal forage population in the establishment of the crop. Based on the emergence and viability tests, the commercialization levels can be maintained by performing the fertilizer/seeds mixture up to 63 hours before sowing. After 63 hours of seed and fertilizer mixing, a reduction of the initial vigor of the seeds can be observed, although not compromising the crop establishment or causing degradation of soil. Therefore, Piatã grass seeds can be mixed with the 05:25:15 NPK fertilizer up to 63 hours before sowing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Characteristics, Chemical Composition and In vitro Gas Production of Sugarcane Cultivars (Saccharum spp.) for Feeding Ruminants

Rafael Henrique Pereira dos Reis, Joadil Gonçalves de Abreu, Roberto Giolo de Almeida, Luciano da Silva Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral, Livia Vieira de Barros, Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral, Arthur Behling Neto, Edegar Matter, Patricia Orlando Royer, Dayenne Mariane Herrera, Joana de Medeiros Farias

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i130194

The aim of this work was to evaluate the agronomic characteristics, chemical composition and in vitro gas production of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars used in ruminant feed. The experimental design was a randomized block containing seven treatments and three replications totaling 21 plots. The cultivars RB835436, RB925211, RB925345, RB937570, RB945961, RB955970 e SP91-1049 was evaluated for dry matter, dry matter yield, stalk percentage, stalk tons per hectare, plant height, stalk diameter, number of tillers per linear meter, mass per stem, soluble solids content (BRIX), NDF/BRIX ratio and tons of sucrose/ha, total digestible nutrients, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy and in vitro digestibility of organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent, of digestion and In vitro gas production of non-fibrous carbohydrates, latency time, digestion rate and gas production of fibrous carbohydrates, and in vitro digestibility of organic matter. There was a significant difference between the cultivars regarding the neutral detergent fiber content, in vitro digestibility of organic matter, total digestible nutrients, digestible energy, net energy, degradation rates of fibrous and non-fibrous carbohydrates and latency period. There was a negative correlation between stem percentage and NDF/BRIX and positive correlation between in vitro digestibility of organic matter and total digestible nutrients. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and mean test by Scott-Knott and Pearson's correlation analysis. The statistical program used was SAEG 2000. The RB835486 variety was superior to the other cultivars, as it presented 93.28% of stem, 57.5% of in vitro digestibility of organic matter, NDF / BRIX ratio of 2.68, 43.78% NDF, latency period 2.86h and fibrous carbohydrate degradation rate of 2.26% per hour. Therefore, this cultivar was better indicated for animal feeding between May and July in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction of Eggplant Genotypes by Cropping Systems and Correlations between Characters

José Carlos Costa, Adônis Queiroz Mendes, Islan Diego Espindula de Carvalho, Jackson da Silva, José Luiz Sandes de Carvalho Filho, Dimas Menezes

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i130195

The eggplant, Solanum melongena L. is a crop that is in the expansion phase, mainly due to the medicinal properties of its fruits in lowering cholesterol levels and blood pressure. The objective of this work was to evaluate eggplant genotypes in different cropping systems, identifying those most adapted to the Meso-region of Atlantic Forest. The experiment was conducted between December 2011 and May 2012, in the experimental area of the Department of Agronomy of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco - UFRPE, Recife, PE, and at the Experimental Station Luiz Jorge da Gama Wanderley - IPA in Vitória de Santo Antão, PE, located in the Meso-region of Atlantic Forest. We assessed two open-pollinated cultivars and six eggplant hybrids in three cultivation systems: conventional, organic and hydroponic. A randomized complete block design with eight treatments and six replicates was used in each of the three systems. The hydroponic cultivation system exhibited the best results in all the genotypes in the studied variables, in which five hybrids presented better performance in this system. The hybrid of Ciça and Embu, open pollinated cultivar, showed no significant difference between the systems. The hybrids Comprida, Chica and Blanca showed higher commercial fruit yield in all cultivation systems. The hydroponic system presented that the majority of the genotypic and phenotypic correlations smaller than those of the conventional and organic systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenotypical Variability of Functional Groups of Plants in an Urban Rainforest

Maria J. H. Leite, Valdemir F. Silva, Maria A. M. Silva, Andréa V. F. Pinto, Ana C. B. Lins-e-Silva, Maria M. B. Aguiar, Girlânio H. Silva, Ladivania M. Nascimento, André L. A. Lima, Maria J. N. Rodal

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i130196

The functional characteristics of plants can be used to understand the changes of vegetation under different environmental pressures, since during the process of succession, the species deal with variations of luminosity, an important resource for the regeneration and growth of plants in humid tropical forests. From the perspective that along the succession there is variation of light availability and that leaf characteristics such as specific leaf area, chlorophyll content and leaf dry matter content are more plastic in groups linked to the rapid acquisition of the resource at the beginning of the succession, it was tested the hypothesis that at the beginning of the succession, where there is greater availability of light, leaf characteristics would be more plastic for the acquisitive group. It was initially found that the geographic distances did not influence the values ​​of the variability indices of the groups, which allows to infer that the distance between the areas does not interfere in the variability of the leaf characteristics. To answer the hypothesis that at the beginning of the succession, in which there is greater light availability, the leaf characteristics would be more plastic for the purchasing group than for the conservative ones, a simple linear regression analysis (ARLS) was performed in the indices of variability for the groups (acquisitive and conservative) and abiotic factor (light) in each area of ​​occurrence. However, the hypothesis that at the beginning of the succession, where there is greater light availability, the characteristics of the leaf would be more plastic for the species was rejected for the species acquisitive, since all indices were reduced for the purchasing group. It is important to take into account that the variation of leaf characteristics as a function of the light availability in an urban tropical fragment is different from what occurs in the classic succession commonly reported, pointing out that possible disturbances caused by the surroundings are the main agents of the functional structure of the community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Bacillus subtilis on Meloidogyne javanica and on Tomato Growth Promotion

Elisete Pedreira Lopes, Regina Cássia Ferreira Ribeiro, Adelica Aparecida Xavier, Renato Martins Alves, Marcelly Thais de Castro, Maria Josiane Martins, Lorena Gracielly de Almeida, Edson Hiydu Mizobutsi, José Augusto dos Santos Neto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i130197

Objective: To evaluate under controlled conditions the effect of alternative liquid Bacillus subtilis isolate 34 formulation on Meloidogyne javanica and tomato growth promotion.

Statistical Design: The design was completely randomized block with five treatments and eight replicates. The results were submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages compared by the Tukey test with 5% error probability. The statistical package used in the analysis of the data was the program "Sisvar"

Location and Duration of the Experiment: The experiment was set up during the period from February 13, 2018 to April 20, 2018 in greenhouse located at the State University of Montes Claros, municipality of Janaúba, MG, Brazil.

Methods: Treatments consisted of different times of application of bacteria in tomato seedlings: application of bacteria in the tube at eight and fifteen days after emergence; application of bacteria in the tube at eight and fifteen days after emergence and in pots at 25 and 35 days after transplanting; application of bacteria at 25 and 35 days after transplantation in the pot; Onix® commercial product (Bacillus methylotrophicus-UFPEDA20) and control. After 60 days of transplanting, the number of egg masses, number of galls, number of eggs, number of second-stage juveniles (J2) and reproduction factor, height, fresh and dry shoot mass and fresh root mass of tomato plants were evaluated.

Results: There was a reduction in the number of J2, eggs pre root, and eggs per gram of root when the bacteria formulation was applied in the tube + pot and in pot only. The application of the bacteria in the tube + pot and in only pot only presents the highest increase of fresh and dry shoot mass and fresh root mass.

Conclusion: The application of the liquid B. subtilis isolated 34 formulation to the soil in the pot and tube + pot reduced the reproduction of M. javanica and promoted greater tomato development.