Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Soil Type in Nutrient Amount in Eucalyptus urograndis: Macronutrients

Simoni Martini Salvador, Mauro Valdir Schumacher, James Stahl, Aline Aparecida Ludvichak, Dione Richer Momolli, Catarine Barcelos Consensa

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i330204

The aim of the present study was to quantify macronutrient stock in the hybrid Eucalyptus urograndis, for different soil types in Telemaco Borba, Parana, Brazil. Sandy texture (Cambisols Inceptisols), and clayey texture (Ferralsols Oxisols) soils were selected for the study. Based on the diameter at breast height (DBH) survey of all the trees comprising each plot, 12 trees were selected per soil type for biomass sampling. The trees were sectioned at soil level and separated into: leaves, branches, stembark, stemwood, tree tops wood, tree tops bark and roots, and a representative sample of each component was collected and grounded in a Wiley-type mill for analytical determination of the macronutrients. The analyses of the experiment were performed considering a completely randomized design. The concentrations of the macronutrients in the different biomass components were significantly different in both types of soil. With the exception of calcium, in the sandy soil and calcium and magnesium in the clayey soil, which were more present in the stembark component, the other components present the highest concentration values in the leaves component. The lowest concentration values of macronutrients, both for the sandy soil and for the clayey soil, were found in the stemwood and roots components. Total nutrient stock found in the biomass, in the sandy soil was 1.65 Mg ha-1, distributed in the following order of magnitude: stemwood > root > stembark > leaves > branches > tree tops wood > tree tops bark. For the clayey soil the order was: stemwood > stembark > root > branches > leaves > tree tops wood > tree tops bark, presenting a total stock of 2.41 Mg ha-1. The highest amount of macronutrients in the biomass was found in soil with a clayey texture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Homogeneity Evaluation of Historical Rainfall and Temperature Series in Mato Grosso

Elizangela Selma da Silva, José Holanda Campelo Júnior, Francisco de Almeida Lobo, Ricardo Santos Silva Amorim

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i330205

The homogeneity investigation of a series can be performed through several nonparametric statistical tests, which serve to detect artificial changes or non-homogeneities in climatic variables. The objective of this work was to evaluate two methodologies to verify the homogeneity of the historical climatological series of precipitation and temperature in Mato Grosso state. The series homogeneity evaluation was performed using the following non-parametric tests: Wald-Wolfowitz (for series with one or no interruption), Kruskal-Wallis (for series with two or more interruptions), and Mann-Kendall (for time series trend analysis). The results of the precipitation series homogeneity analysis from the National Waters Agency stations, analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Wald-Wolfowitz tests, presented 61.54% of homogeneous stations, being well distributed throughout Mato Grosso state, whereas those of the trend analysis allowed to identify that 87.57% of the rainfall-gauging stations showed a concentrated positive trend, mainly in the rainy season. Out of the conventional stations of the National Institute of Meteorology of Mato Grosso, seven were homogeneous for the precipitation variable, five for maximum temperature and four stations were homogeneous for minimum temperature. For the trend analysis in the 11 stations, positive trends of random nature were observed, suggesting increasing alterations in the analyzed variables. Therefore, the trend analysis performed by the Mann-Kendall test in the precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature climate series, indicated that several data series showed increasing trends, suggesting a possible increase in precipitation and temperature values over the years. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis and Wald-Wolfowitz tests for homogeneity presented more than 87% of homogeneous stations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Litter under Potential Eucalypts Genotype Stands in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Kristiana Fiorentin dos Santos, Mauro Valdir Schumacher, Aline Aparecida Ludvichak, Tulio Barroso Queiroz, Elias Frank de Araújo

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i330206

The objective of the study was to quantify the litter in different genotypes of eucalypts stands at 49-months-old, located in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Areas of 720 m² were demarcated for each genotype. In each area, 15 samples were randomly collected. The litter ranged from 4.51 to 10.77 Mg ha-1, highlighting the E. dunnii and the hybrid of E. urophylla x E. globulus with the lowest and largest accumulation, respectively. The leaves corresponded, on average, between 48.56% and 73.03% of the total litter. The differentiation between the genotypes occurred as to the accumulated litter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Root Growth Responses of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Soybean (Glycine max L.) to Soil Compaction and Fertilization in a Ferric Acrisol

Seidu Iddrissu Bawa, Charles Quansah, Henry Oppong Tuffour, Awudu Abubakari, Caleb Melenya

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i330207

Mechanical impedance to root growth is one of the most important factors determining root elongation and proliferation within a soil profile. Two pot experiments were conducted at the Department of Horticulture, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana, to determine the impact of subsurface compaction and different fertilizer amendments on the root growth of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.). The experiments were arranged in a factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Maize and soybean varieties, “Obaatanpa” and “Anidaso” were sown in 72 plastic buckets (36 for each crop) of 12 L volume filled with a Ferric Acrisol. The treatments were different levels of compaction, using bulk density as proxy – 1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 Mg   m-3, and fertilizer amendments of 100% poultry manure (15 g/pot), 100% NPK fertilizer (2.89 g/pot) and 50% each of poultry manure (7.5 g/pot) and NPK fertilizer (1.45 g/pot). The highest root growth occurred in the uncompacted soil and along the periphery of the soil core. The applied soil amendments significantly increased the root penetration ratio (RPR) of both crops in relation to the control. The shoot biomass of both crops decreased with increasing soil bulk density. All the applied soil amendments significantly increased the shoot biomass of maize and soybean over the control. The magnitude of response of the crops to the soil amendments was greater in soybean than in maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Canonical Correlation between Soil Attributes and Foliar of Conilon Coffee Trees

Abel Souza da Fonseca, Julião Soares de Souza Lima, Maria Christina Junger Delôgo Dardengo, Samuel de Assis Silva, Alexandre Candido Xavier

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i330208

The nutritional status of the coffee tree is influenced by the concentration of nutrients in the soil of the growing area. The objective of this work was to evaluate, using canonical correlation, the linear relationships between chemical attributes of soil and nutrients of leaf tissues in seminal coffee. The work was developed in a commercial crop located in the municipality of Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, the southern region of the state of Espírito Santo. In the crop, an irregular sampling mesh was constructed, totalling 80 georeferenced points. The canonical correlation analysis was performed considering the original data observed in two consecutive conilon coffee harvests, 2015/16 and 2016/17, to verify the associations between a (dependent) group formed by foliar nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) and an independent group formed by soil chemical attributes (pH, Ca, Al, K, S, P, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). Even if nutrients are available, that is, available in a satisfactory amount in the soil, it can happen that it does not reach the leaf tissue, resulting in a deficiency for some nutrients. There was a direct relationship between the concentration of K in the leaf tissue and K in the soil in the two harvests. Other soil attributes, such as Organic Matter, Fe, Mn, and S, also influenced this relationship, showing that the soil attributes in the independent group interact together on the nutrients in the leaf tissue. There is an inverse relationship between the concentrations of K in the leaf tissue and the Mn in the soil in the two harvests, showing that the excess of Mn in the soil is influencing the K deficiency in the leaf tissue.