Open Access Original Research Article

Image Analysis in the Evaluation of the Physical and Physiological Quality of Jiló (Solanum gilo) Seeds during Development

Marcus Vinicius Prado Alves, Édila Vilela de Resende Von Pinho, Gustavo Costa Prado Alves, Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho, Heloisa Oliveira dos Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i630219

Currently, the X-ray image analysis of seeds has proved effective for the evaluation of the physical and physiological quality of the seeds, besides being a non-destructive method. The objective of this work was to evaluate the internal free area of jiló seeds (Solanum gilo) through the analysis of radiographic images and to relate the results with the germination of seeds in different stages of maturation. The seeds were harvested at 35, 40, 45 days after anthesis and 45 days after anthesis with 7 days at rest (45 DAAr). Seeds with free internal area ≤ 10% produced normal seedlings whereas seeds with an average free area above 10% produced abnormal or non-germinated seedlings. Seeds of fruits harvested at 45 DAA and seven days at rest showed a smaller internal free area and a formation of 100% of normal seedlings. The analysis of the radiographic images of jiló seeds allows the measurement of the free internal areas, as well as the determination of the relation between these and the germination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Different Light Radiation Intensities on Cotton: A Physiological Approach

Lucas Aparecido Manzani Lisboa, Fernando Takayuki Nakayama, Edivaldo Cia, Paulo Alexandre Monteiro de Figueiredo, Sérgio Bispo Ramos, Ronaldo da Silva Viana, Rodrigo Vitorino, Thiago de Souza Celestrino, Samuel Ferrari

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i630220

The luminosity and the temperature are factors that act directly in the photosynthetic process, where an elevation of the luminous intensity can cause a reduction of the assimilation of carbon, which consequently lowers the development of the cotton. The objective of this work was to assess the response of physiological parameters of cotton when subjected to different artificial light intensities. Two varieties of cotton IMA5801B2RF and IACRDN, were interacting with five artificial light intensities: 0 (control); 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 μmol m−2 s−1 of photosynthetically active radiation provided by LED bulbs. The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design using a 2x5 factorial scheme. The variables measured were the rate of CO2 assimilation, transpiration, stomatal conductance, inner CO2 concentration in the substomatic chamber, and efficient use of water (for which a portable device of gas exchange was used). The cotton varieties responded positively to different luminous intensities until reaching the point of maximum saturation between 1400 and 1600 µmol m-1 s-1 of light, which provided a better rate of CO2 assimilation, concentration of CO2 in the substomatic chamber, and efficient use of water. Leaf transpiration and stomatal conductance showed a positive linear response with increasing light intensity. The ideal luminous intensity for the use of Infra-Red Gas Analyzer - IRGA was 1500 µmol m-1 s-1 for the tested cotton varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Germination In vitro De Jabuticabeira Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) Berg

Sabrina Kelly dos Santos, Núbia Pereira da Costa Luna, Otalício Damásio da Costa Júnior, Mariana de Vasconcelos Dias, Daniel da Silva Gomes, Karollayne Tomaz Emiliano Fonseca

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i630221

Aims: The present work aimed to determine the influence of antibiotic use on seed germination and development of jabuticabeira (Myrciaria jaboticaba) seedlings grown in vitro.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, where the treatments were composed of two types of culture medium and three forms of antibiotic use.

Place and Study duration: The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Cell Biology and Culture of Vegetable Tissues (LABCULTIVE), at the Department of Biological Sciences (DCB), at the Agricultural Sciences Center (CCA), Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), from November 2016 until May 2017.

Methodology: The fruits of jabuticabeira were harvested from a matrix plant and the seeds were removed manually, with subsequent elimination of the pulp and removal of the tegument. They underwent a disinfestation procedure in 70% alcohol and sodium hypochlorite and grown in culture medium.

Results: The highest germination average was obtained when the seeds were soaked for 24 hours in autoclaved water + antibiotic and when placed in liquid medium. In all analyzed variables the liquid medium provided better means. There was no statistical difference in any of the variables analyzed in relation to the use of the antibiotic in the imbibition and the non-use of the antibiotic.

Conclusion: The seeds of Myrciaria jaboticaba have greater germination and better development in the liquid culture medium; the presence of the antibiotic in the culture medium probably caused phytotoxicity, thus compromising the germination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biopesticide Potentialities of Eagle Fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and Ricin (Ricinus communis) in the Protection of Vegetables Crops

Carine Mala, Sevilor Kekeunou, Nadia Djoukouo, Zofou Denis, Jean Paul Olina Bassala, Elias Nukenine

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i630222

Introduction: Pesticides commonly used in crop protection are serious causes of ecological and sanitary disorders.

Aims: This present work investigates the biopesticide properties of Pteridium auquilinum and Ricinus communis in the protection of three vegetable crops Lactuca sativa, Solanum nigrum and Raphanus sativus.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental tests were conducted on the site of BIONATURE (Bafoussam, Cameroon) from 24 June to 30 August 2017.

Methodology: Four types of preparations were made and bioefficacy tests consisted of contact treatments. Direct observations on the physical aspect of the plant, agronomic measurements, and pathology monitoring were carried out.

Results: The results show that the fermentation of the fern is complete after 5 days versus 8 days for the castor. The aqueous extracts of fern have insect repellent, insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Diluted maceration of fern (88.75%) was more efficient than the pure maceration (68%).

Conclusion: Manure and castor oil have insecticidal and repellent properties. The monitoring of pathologies after treatment reveals that castor oil is more effective than fern manure in control of gray rots and Tip burn attacks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fertilization on Biomass and Macronutrient Content of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake in Arenized Soil of Pampa Biome

Huan Pablo de Souza, Mauro Valdir Schumacher, Aline Aparecida Ludvichak, Dione Richer Momolli, Claudiney do Couto Guimarães, Angélica Costa Malheiros

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v35i630223

The objective of this study was to quantify the biomass and the macronutrient stock in an experiment of fertilization with Eucalyptus urophylla, planted in arenized soil at 12 months-old, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) with three replications. The treatments T2, T3, T4 and T5, received increasing doses of triple superphosphate. On the other hand, the T1 treatment was the only one to receive natural phosphate in planting. For the determination of the biomass, fifteen trees were felled and separated in the following components: leaves, branches, stem bark, stem wood and roots. Samples of the components were collected and transported to the laboratory for biomass determination and chemical analysis. The total biomass varied between the treatments, with highest biomass accumulation of 6.83 Mg ha-1 occurring in T5. The T1 presented the highest biomass for roots representing 33.4% of the total biomass. The biomass distribution among the different components in the decreasing order was: roots > stem wood > leaves > branches > stem bark, for all the treatments. The treatment with higher doses of fertilizers (T5) presented the highest amount of nutrient accumulation in the total biomass (131.26 kg ha-1). The concentration and accumulation of nutrients presented the following trend K > N > Ca > Mg > P > S. Analyzing the different components of biomass, the highest amounts of nutrients followed the order: leaves > roots > stem wood > branches > stem bark. Fertilization influenced the biomass production of E. urophylla in arenized soil in the Pampa biome, but without significant differences to date (12 months). The leaves had the highest concentration of macronutrients, with the exception of Ca, which was higher in the bark. The K was the element that presented highest accumulation in whole tree. The plantation of eucalyptus with fertilization management may be an alternative for the economic use of arenized soil.