Open Access Original Research Article

Mycorrhizal Colonization in Atriplex nummularia Lind. Subjected to Desalinizador Reject

C. F. de Melo, E. W. F. Gomes, A. S. Messias

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i130224

This work has the objective of evaluating the mycorrhizal colonization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus - AMF Claroideoglomus etunicatum in Atriplex nummularia Lind. subjected to desalinator reject. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the headquarters of Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco - IPA, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with the treatments constituted in a factorial scheme of five levels of salinity in AC= 2.86 mS/cm; T1= 11.54 mS/cm; T2= 12.04 mS/cm; T3= 13.13 mS/cm and T4= 14.16 mS/cm, associated with the presence and absence of fungus, presence and absence of nutrient solution, and autoclaved and non-autoclaved soil. 8.0 g of Hoagland & Arnon complete nutrient solution was added every fortnight. After five months, the roots of the treatments were collected and the root colonization was evaluated. It was found that in all treatments the association between Claroiodeoglomus etunicatum and Atriplex nummularia was beneficial. The correlation was positive for the treatment T4 (Reject + 14 gNaCl) + AMF. Thus, it was observed that salinity had no negative effect on the association as well as on the growth of the vegetable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Susceptibility of the Seeds of Four Varieties of Vigna unguiculata against Callosobruchus maculatus Infestations

Mala Tankam C. M., Kekeunou Sevilor, Olina Bassala J. P., Nukenine Nchiwan E.

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i130225

Introduction: Post-harvest conservation remains a major challenge for most crops in developing countries. Among these is Cowpea one of the major legumes grown and consumed in the tropics and subtropics of countries. Callosobruchus maculatus infestations constitute are the most prominent threat for this particular crop.

Objective: The present research aimed at evaluating the susceptibility of four cowpea varieties against infestations of C. maculatus.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the entomology laboratory of the cowpea section of the Regional Center for Agricultural Research of Maroua from November to December 2018.

Methodology: The experiments were carried out based on the factorial experiment by randomized complete design with five replications. 40 seeds of each variety were put in contact with 5 pairs of bruchids.

Results: The results show that the four cowpea varieties evaluated have different physical characteristics of the seeds. This variability would play an important role in inducing the ovipositional response of C. maculatus females. However, it is not enough on its own to explain the various degree of susceptibility to C.maculatus infestations. There was a positive perfect correlation between the number of adult emergence, growth index, weight loss, number of holes and Dobie susceptibility index. Also, BR-1 was found to be more resistant to C. maculatus followed by Lori-niébé, Vya and least resistance was observed in the Borno brown.

The multiple regression analysis reveals that there is a negative relationship between mortality rate of developmental stages, weight loss, F1 offspring production, and seed susceptibility.

Conclusion: The physical characteristics of the four cowpea varieties tested to affect the susceptibility of the grain to beetle attacks. A number of adult emergence, growth index, weight loss, and susceptibility index are the main indicators for the resistance of cowpea to C. maculatus damage. An analysis of the amino acids contained in the BR-1 is recommended for the introgression of its resistance alleles in susceptible varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Liquid Bacillus subtilis Formulation in Rice for the Control of Meloidogyne javanica and Lettuce Improvement

Elisete Pedreira Lopes, Regina Cássia Ferreira Ribeiro, Adelica Aparecida Xavier, Marcelly Thais de Castro, Renato Martins Alves, Maria Josiane Martins, Lorena Gracielly de Almeida, Edson Hiydu Mizobutsi, José Augusto dos Santos Neto

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i130226

Aim: To develop a liquid formulation based on Bacillus subtilis-34 using rice to evaluate the shelf life under refrigerated and room conditions and to evaluate the effect of different addition times of the formulation on the control of Meloidogyne javanica and growth of lettuce plants.

Statistical Design: The design was completely randomized, with five treatments and eight replicates. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Scott Knott test with 5% error probability.

Location and Duration of the Experiment: The experiment was set up during the period from 02/13/2018 to 03/20/2018 in a greenhouse located at the State University of Montes Claros, municipality of Janaúba, MG, Brazil.

Methodology: Treatments consisted of drench in the substrate of tubes at 8 and 15 days;  drench in the substrate of tubes at 8 and 15 days and in pot at 25 and 35 days; irrigation in pot only at 25 and 35 days after transplanting  and 2 controls (Onix® and absolute control). All pots with plants were inoculated with 5000 nematode eggs. At 45 days of transplanting, the following nematological variables were evaluated: number of galls, number of egg mass, number of eggs per gram and reproduction factor, and agronomic variables fresh and dry biomass.

Results: Additions in the tube and pot and in the pot only were efficient for the reduction in the reproduction of M. javanica and for the improvement of lettuce plant growth.

Conclusion: B. subtilis-34 remains viable until 9 months in formulation stored under the refrigerator and up to 7 months under room conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Different ‘Prata-Anã’ Banana Bunch Ages on Post-Harvest Quality

Lorena Gabriela Coelho de Queiroz, Mariana Oliveira de Jesus, Flávia Soares Aguiar, Eliene Almeida Paraizo, Marcela de Castro Soares, Juceliandy Mendes da Silva Pinheiro, Gisele Polete Mizobutsi, Maria Luisa Mendes Rodrigues, Thais Cristina Santos

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i130227

Objective: To determine the ideal harvest season of ‘Prata-Anã’ banana bunches by means of physical and chemical analyses of fruit cultivation conditions in the northern state of Minas Gerais.

Study Design: The employed experimental design was the completely randomized design was used in a 5x5 factorial scheme, with five bunch ages and five assessment days.

Study Location and Duration: The experiment was run in an area with banana trees planted 20 months beforehand, located at Unimontes’s Experimental Farm, at 530 m of altitude, with coordinates being -15°43’46.99” south latitude and -43°19’17.61”west longitude, between April and November 2017.

Methodology: The bananas bunches the were marked weekly from April 14 to May 12, and week days were standardized for each marking. Five bunch ages were defined – 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 weeks after inflorescence emission – for harvest. For differentiation of emerged bunches, tapes of different color were used. When the bunches marked in the first week completed 20 weeks, all bunches were harvested, which happened on September 1. After harvested the fruits were subjected to storage in refrigerated chamber at 10°C ± 1°C and relative humidity of 90% +5% for 25 days. After being stored for 25 days, the bananas were taken out of the chamber and exposed to a room temperature of 25°C, which analyzes were performed for 9 days, with a two-day interval in between, simulating the marketing period. The following analyses were carried out: Firmness, peel color, soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, amide, total sugars, reducing sugars and electrolyte extravasation.

Results: Lower hue, chroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar and electrolyte extravasation values were found for bananas harvested at 16 weeks.

Conclusion: Bunch harvest age had a direct influence on post-harvest quality of bananas ‘Prata-Anã’. Fruits from 16-week bunches were superior in physical and chemical characteristics compared to other ages, meaning a longer post-harvest life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Artificial Bird Perches for Recovery Different Areas in Brazilian Semiarid

Maria da Penha Moreira Gonçalves, Ana Lícia Patriota Feliciano, Luiz Carlos Marangon, Alessandro de Paula Silva, Lucas Benedito da Silva, Everaldo Marques de Lima Neto, Marilia Alves Grugiki

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i130228

Aims: To evaluate the potential of artificial bird perch for recovering areas on the Brazilian semiarid through seed dispersion and the establishment of regeneration.

Study Design: We tested the treatments: PC= perches in area with preserved surroundings; CC = absence o perches in area with preserved surroundings (Control 1); PP= disturbed area with perches and CP= disturbed area without perches (Control 2). The experiment has a complete randomized design with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in the municipalities of Ibaretama and Quixaba, State of Ceará, Brazil. We used one perturbed (Area 1) and one conserved area (Area 2) in each municipality. The experiment was conducted from April 2014 to May 2016, a total of 24 months.

Methodology: 24 perches were used in each area. Seed rain and natural regeneration were evaluated. Collectors were installed at the perch bases and the seeds sampled monthly, quantified and identified. Every twelve months, the natural regeneration was verified under the perches, quantifying and identifying the regenerates.

Results: We found 1031 seeds of shrub-tree species dispersed. The treatment with perches in environment with conserved surroundings had the higher number of seeds. The main dispersed species were Commiphora leptophloeos (28.3 sem.m-2), Lantana camara (7.3 sem.m-2) and Cynophalla flexuosa (2.6 sem.m-2). We observed the higher value of regeneration in the treatments with artificial perches with conserved surroundings, 2.7 individuals.m-2. The dispersal syndrome of natural regeneration consisted of 50% of zoochoric species.

Conclusion: Artificial perches exert a recuperative function on Brazilian semiarid areas, increasing the rain of zoochoric seeds and the recruitment of the species. We recommend artifitial perches for the attraction of dispersers in different disturbed areas.