Open Access Short Research Article

Preliminary Evaluation: Hydrocarbons, Cobalt, & Urea Enhance Bacteria Benefits to Plants

Guenevere Perry, Don Spence

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i330237

Aim: Develop a method to induce PGPB to biosynthesize nitrile compounds that may act as a reliable and repeatable means to increase seed germination in plant species.

Study Design: The germination experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with two replications and 40 pots (80 seedlings) per experimental unit, following a 1x1 factorial design for each culture, treated or untreated soil and 1 germination period for both conditions. The nitrile hydratase experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications and 3 soil samples per experimental unit, following a 1x1 factorial design for each cultivar, induced or non-induced soil and 1 cultivation period.

Place and Duration of Study: Germination work was executed at G & A Innovative Solutions, LLC, GA., April - May 2017. Nitrile Hydratase Assay work was executed at Georgia State University, Applied Environmental Microbiology Dept., Atlanta, GA. November 2010-August 2011. Methodology: Rhodococcus and Bacillus species were induced with short chained-hydrocarbons, cobalt, and urea in a triphasic system for 3 d to potentially make nitrile compounds to benefit seed germination. Increased NHase activity has been previously correlated to production of these nitrile compounds and an increased ability to affect plant development. NHase activity was measured after bacteria were suspended in soil for 6-7 d.

Results: The induction method sustained and increased NHase activity by 200%, during suspension in soil. Induced Bacillus increased germination by 34%, shoot & root length by 67% & 10%.

Conclusion: Enhancing biosynthesis of nitriles in PGPB may enhance bacteria ability increase seed germination rates.  Measuring NHase activity may indirectly measure efficacy of PGPB in soil. The results are preliminary and require additional studies to confirm results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Brachiarias in the Improvement of Physical and Chemical Attributes of a Yellow Oxisol

Patricia Venâncio da Silva, Ivandro de França da Silva, Stella Ribeiro Prazeres Suddarth, Cássio Ricardo Gonçalves da Costa, Matheus Serrano de Medeiros, Ailson de Lima Marques, Debora Coelho Moura, Kilmer Oliveira Soares

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i330234

The study evaluated the effect of the cultivation of five species of grasses of the genus Brachiaria (B. decumbens, B. ruziziensis, B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. brizantha CV MG-5) in physical and chemical properties and in the formation and stabilization of aggregates of a Yellow Oxisol. The test with the grasses in the absence and presence of fertilization was conducted in the Chã de Jardim area, belonging to the Centro de Ciências Agrárias-UFPB, located in the county Areia-PB. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with subdivided parcels, in factorial scheme 5 × 2 × 4, with four repetitions, being: five species of Grass (Braquiarias), two conditions of mineral fertilization with NPK (absence or presence) and four depths of soil samples collection (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm), totaling 40 subplots of 5.0 × 5.0 m, with 3 repetitions, totaling 120 sampling points. The grasses favored the formation of aggregates and contributed to their stability. Brachiaria brizantha is the most suitable grass to raise the organic matter content of an Oxisol without mineral fertilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantification of Corn Grains Losses in Road Transport

Pedro Silvério Xavier Pereira, Aloisio Bianchini, Carlos Caneppele, Antônio Renan Berchol da Silva, Dryelle Sifuentes Pallaoro, Rodrigo Fernandes Daros, Bruna Regina Blanger

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i330236

The present work had the objective of quantifying corn grain losses in road transportation along a section of highway BR 163 in the state of Mato Grosso. The survey was done in July and August of 2016 in the section between the Imigrantes Highway, within the city of Cuiabá - MT, and the municipality of Nova Mutum – MT. This stretch is considered to be the one with the highest flow of grain loads in the state of Mato Grosso. Twenty one collect points were established along the stretch, with a distance of 10 km from one point to the other, at each collect point 3 areas of 1 m² were delimited with the aid of a fixed frame of wood with the same area, in a distance of 1.3 m from the highway margin, in the north-south direction, which is the direction of the grain flow. The samples were placed in identified plastic bags and taken to the laboratory for separation and weighing. The points of the biggest grain losses were points 06 and 12 of the section, where it was verified pavement in poor quality with much road surfacing, and the points of lower losses were collected in the top quality asphalt range.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance, Immuno-stimulatory and Blood Biochemical Indices of Broiler Chickens Fed Hot Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Supplemented Diets

A. A. Adedoyin, M. A. Mosobalaje, A. I. Bamimore

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i330238

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of hot red pepper (HRP) powder as a natural feed additive on performance, immunity and blood biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was adopted by using 180 two weeks old Anak broiler chicks, allocated to four treatments with nine replicates of five birds each. Commercial broiler diets used containing HRP at the levels of 0%, 1.0%, 1.25% and 1.5%.

Results showed that HRP supplementation did not significantly increase (p>0.05) the Average Feed Intake (AFI). Also not significant (p>0.05) but birds fed with the control diet had the numerically lowest Average Body Weight Gain (ABWG) (38.11 g) and worst Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) (1.96). Better cost/kg weight gain was also found in the birds fed with the HRP supplemented diets. Mortality was however, significantly (p>0.05) higher in control diets compared to other diets. Packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (HG), and white blood cell (WBC) levels were not significantly (p>0.05) different among the experimental groups. At the same time, HRP dietary supplementation did not have a significant effect on serum biochemical parameters (Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), High-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose. Conclusively, hot red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) inclusion up to 1.5% has the potential to improve feed conversion ratio and cost/kg weight gain, without affecting the blood biochemical indices of broiler chickens.

Open Access Review Article

Nitrogen Use Efficiency: Farming Practices and Sustainability

Muhammad Haroon, Fahad Idrees, Hamza Armghan Naushahi, Rabail Afzal, Muhammad Usman, Tauqeer Qadir, Husnain Rauf

Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jeai/2019/v36i330235

It is expected that up to 2050, human population will be doubled. Agricultural researchers are striving their best to meet the food challenges. To get the higher yield, nitrogenous fertilizers use is also being increased. Nitrogenous fertilizers play vital roles in different plant’s growth and developmental processes. But, excessive use of nitrogen is no more beneficial to plants. Only 30 to 50% nitrogen use efficiency is recorded in plants, the remaining nitrogen is used by soil microbes, leached down in soil profile or volatilized. Different agronomical practices have been practiced and suggested for the general cultivation. Proper use of these agronomical practices can increase the crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency.